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Rubenstein Vocabulary Chapter 2
|1. Arithmetic density
|the total number of people divided by the total land area.
|2. Physiological density
|the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
|birth rate, the number of live births per year per thousand population.
|death rate, the number of deaths per year per thousand population.
|6. Population explosion
|a dramatic increase in world population since 1900. The crucial element triggering this explosion has been a dramatic decrease in the death rate, particularly for infants and children, in most of the world.
|8. Demographic Transition
|the process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
|9. Zero population growth
|when the total fertility rate ( measured as the average number of children born per woman between ages 15 to 44 years of age) or TFR is at 2.1 which is a stabilized population, one that does not increase or decrease.
|11. Population pyramid
|a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
|a group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experience; not necessarily bases only on age, but may also be defined based on criteria such as time of marriage or time of graduation; all individuals in a certain age range.
|scattered settlements of a particular national group living abroad.
|14. Gender roles
|culturally specific notions of what it means to be a man and what it means to be a woman, are closely tied to how many children are produced by couples.
|16. Infant mortality rate
|the number of infants per 1,000 live births who die before reaching one year of age.
|the survival of a land
|a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a high proportion of the population.
|23. Demographic equation
|summarizes the contribution made to regional population change over time by the combination of natural change (difference between births and deaths) and net migration (difference between in
|24. Dependency ratio
|a simple measure of the number of economic dependents, old or young, that each 100 people in the productive years (usually 15
|25. Rate of natural increase
|the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
|26. Doubling time
|the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
|a curve depicting exponential or geometric growth
|the horizontal bending or leveling of an exponential or J-curve
|that part of the earth’s surface physically suitable for permanent human settlement; the permanently inhabited areas of the earth.
|the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
|circumstances of too few people to sufficiently develop the resources of a country or region to improve the level of living of its inhabitants.
|32. Carrying capacity
|the number of people an area can support on a sustained basis given the prevailing technology.
|33. Population projection
|estimates of future population size, age, and sex composition based on current data.
|35. Demographic momentum
|(population momentum) the tendency for population growth to continue despite stringent family planning programs because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years.
|population geography, the study of the spatial and ecological aspects of population, including density, distribution, fertility, gender, living standard, health, age, nutrition, mortality, and mobility.
|37. Push Factor
|negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to a new locale.
|38. Pull Factor
|positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas.
|permanent movement undertaken by choice.
|permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
|41. Transnational migrant
|migrants who set up homes and/or work in more than one nation
|people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
|43. Intercontinental Migration Pattern
|permanent movement from one continent to another.
|44. Interregional Migration Pattern
|permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
|45. Intraregional Migration Pattern
|permanent movement within one region of a country.
|46. rural to urban
|permanent movement from an agrarian sparsely populated region to a densely populated metropolitan area.
|47. Place utility
|in human movement and migration studies, a measure of an individual’s perceived satisfaction for approval of a place in its social, economic, or environmental attributes.
|48. Activity space
|the space within which daily activity occurs.
|49. Personal space
|an invisible, usually irregular area around a person into which he or she does not willingly admit others; situational and cultural variable.
|50. Space- time prism
|a diagram of the column of space and the length of time within which our activities are confines by constraints of our bodily needs (eating, resting) and the means of mobility at our command
|51. Space- time compression
|the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
|52. Gravity Model
|a model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
|53. Distance Decay
|the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance form its origin.
|54. Step Migration
|migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and city.
|55. Chain Migration
|migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
|56. Intervening opportunity
|the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminished the attractiveness of sites farther away.
|57. Intervening obstacle
|an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
|58. Cyclic Movement
|movement, for example: nomadic migration, that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally.
|59. Migratory Movement
|periodic movement involving millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances.
|60. Migration transition
|change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
|the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
|62. Internal Migration
|permanent movement within a particular country.
|63. International Migration
|permanent movement from one country to another.
|form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.