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Fund of Disease ch 8

Diseases of the Respiratory System chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
Infections of the sinuses, nose or pharynx(throat) are called URI (Upper Respiratory Infections) or URD (Upper Respiratory Disease
Upper Respiratory Infections (URI) or Upper Respiratory Diseases(URD) include: 1.Coryza(common cold) 2.Sinusitis(inflammation of the sinuses) 3.Hay Fever 4.Tonsillitis(inflammation of the tonsils) 5.Influenza(flu)
Coryza is AKA the common cold
Coryza (common cold) is caused by more than 200 different strains of viruses that are highly contagious(communicable)
Signs & symptoms of coryza(common cold) include 1.Nasal congestion 2.Copious rhinorrhea(large amount of nasal discharge) 3.Sneezing 4.Pyrexia(fever) in children 5.Pharyngitis(inflammation of the pharynx/throat) 6.Cough
Recovering from coryza(common cold) does not provide a lasting immunity
Viscous(thick) yellow or green mucus secretion is a sign of a secondary bacterial infection such as: Staph(staphylococci), Strep(streptococci), or pneumococci
Tx(treatment) for coryza(common cold) include: 1.Antipyretics(Tylenol) 2.Decongestants(Sudafed) 3.Antitussives(Benylin DM/anti cough) 4.Increased fluid intake 5.Rest 6.Antibiotics (Amoxicillin-if there are signs & symptoms of a secondary infection)
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses commonly caused by viruses, bacteria, and allergens
Signs & symptoms of sinusitis include: 1.Facial pain/pressure 2.Cephalalgia(head pain)
Tx(treatment) for sinusitis includes: 1.Antihistamines(Claritin) 2.Decongestants(Alfrin) 3.Steam vaporizer
Common causes of Obstructive Sleep Apnea(OSA) include: 1.Deviated nasal septum(wall) 2.Nasal polyps 3.Lingual(tongue) and/or soft palate proplapse(drooping or sagging/go back)
OSA(Obstructive Sleep Apnea) causes heavy, long, and loud snoring & snorting
OSA(Obstructive Sleep Apnea) is more common in overweight males over age 40
Untreated OSA(Obstructive Sleep Apnea) increases the risk of: 1.HTN(HyperTeNsion/high blood pressure) 2.CVA(Cerebral Vascular Accident) 3.DM(Diabetes Mellitus) 4.MI(Myocardial Infarction) 5.CHF(Congestive Heart Failure) 6.Cardia arrhythmias(dysrhythmias) 7.MDD(Major Depressive Disorder)
Tx(treatment for OSA(Obstructive Sleep Apnea) includes: 1.C-PAP(Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) device 2.Surgical repair of obstructive structure
Hay Fever(Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis(SAR) is usually caused by allergies to pollens, ragweed and grasses
Signs & symptoms of hay fever (SAR)(seasonal allergic rhinitis) include: 1.Nasal congestion & sneezing 2.Rhinorrhea(nasal discharge)3.Cephalalgia(headache) 4.Erythematous(red) pruritic(itchy) watery eyes 5.Tinnitus(ringing in the ear) 6.Postnasal drip
Tx(treatment) for SAR(seasonal allergic rhinitis)/hay fever includes: 1.Antihistamines(Zyrtec) 2.Decongestants(Drixoral) 3.Allergy desensitization(allergy shots)
Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils commonly caused by a virus
Signs & symptoms of tonsillitis include: 1.Enlarged & erythematous (red)tonsils 2.Dysphagia(painful or difficult swallowing) 3.Pyrexia(fever) 4.Pustules(pus filled papules) can develop on the tonsils
Tonsillitis & cervical lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes)without rhinorrhea(nasal discharge) sneezing, or coughing indicates a bacterial inffection (possibly strep-streptococci)
Treatment(Tx) for tonsillitis include: 1.Gargling with salt water 2.Antipyretics(Tylenol) 3.Antibiotics(penicillin) for strep(streptococci)
Treatment(Tx) for chronic (persistent) tonsillitis includes T&A (Tonsillectomy & Adenoidectomy)
Influenza(flu) is most commonly caused by the type A & B virus
The flu season usually runs from November through March
Signs & symptoms of infuenza(flu) include: Chills .Pyrexia(fever) .Cough .Pharyngitis(inflammation of the pharynx(throat) .Sneezing & rhinorrhea(nasal discharge) .Thoracodynia(chest pain) .Myalgias(muscle pain) .Cephalalgia(headache) .Malaise(feeling of being unwell) .Vomiting & diarrhea
Methods to reduce the risk of contracting influenza(flu) include: Frequent proper hand washing .Beware of fomites(objects,contaminated w/pathogens) .Refrain from touching eys, nose, mouth .Proper diet/exercise .Annual immunization(vaccination,inoculations)
Full immunization can take up to 2 weeks
Influenza can range in severity from mild to life threatening
Influenza is particularly serious in the *Very Young *Elderly *Chronically ill
Complication associated with influenza(flu) is pneumonia
Tx of influenza include *Bed rest *Increase fluid intake *Antipyretics(Tylenol/motrin) *Decongestants(Sudafed) *Antihistamines(Benadryl) *Antivirals(Tamiflu Relenza/inhaled *Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for immunocompromised(weakened immune system)
Lower Respiratory Disease(LRD) include: *Chronic bronchitis *Asthma *Emphysema *CF(Cystic Fibrosis) *Pneumonconiosis(abnormal condition dust in lung) *Pneumonia *Pleurisy(pleuritis) *TB(TuBerculosis) *Bronchogenic carcinoma
COPD (Cronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) consists of *Chronic bronchitis *Asthma *Emphysema *CF(Cystic Fibrosis) *Pneumoconiosis(abnormal condition of dust in lungs)
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi
Bronchitis can be acute(sudden onset) and/or chronic(persistant)
Bronchitis is commonly caused by respiratory irritants such as 1.Air pollution(smoke & allergens) 2.Viruses 3.Bacteria
Signs & symptoms of bronchitis include 1.Thoracodynia(chest pain) 2.Dyspnea(difficult breathing) 3.Productive cough 4.Pyrexia(fever) 5.Chills
Bronchitis often follows an URI (Upper Respiratory Infection)
Bronchitis is most serious in young children, the chronically ill, and the elderly because of the complication of pneumonia
Tx of bronchitis includes 1.Removal of irritants(smoking) 2.Antibiotics for bacterial infections 3.Nebulizers(vaporizers)
Asthma is characterized by *constriction of the walls of the bronchi(main airway branches)& bronchioles(small bronchi)causing stenosis(narrowing)& spasms(involuntary muscle contractions)*Breathing, especially exhaling is difficult
In asthma the bronchial spasms(involuntary muscle contractions) and stenosis(narrowing)cause a characteristic BS(Breath Sound) called rhonchi(wheezing)
Exacerbation(to make worse) of asthma has been linked to .Respiratory Infection .Sudden weather Changes .Psychogenic factors(anxiety,poorly controlled stress) .Vigorous exercise(warmup/cool down before exercise) .Hypersensitivity to allergens
Hypersensitivity to allergens such as: : *Dust*Molds*Pollen*Animal dander(dried skin/hair)*Certain fabrics*Cosmetics*Cigarette smoke*Aerosol sprays*Cologne*Various foods*NSAIDs(NonSteriodal Anti-inflammatory drugs)*Caffeine(coffee,tea,chocolate,soda)
There is no cure for asthma but attacks may become less severe with age
Asthma incidence has also been associated with ultra clean childhood environment*sedentary lifestyle & obesity(Parade)
The risk of asthma decreases if a child is breastfed
Tx for asthma includes: 1.Avoidance of allergens 2.Allergy desensitization(allergy shots) 3.Corticosteroids(SAIDs-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) 4.Bronchodilators(albuterol) 5.Asmanex 6.Symbicort 7.Singulair
Asthma is typically triggered by allergies
Asthma can be monitored by measuring the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled with a PFM(Peak Flow Meter)
Emphysema is characterized by a progressive irreversible loss of elasticity of the aveoli(microscopic air sacs that respirate)
The most severe form of asthma is status asthmaticus
Emphysema is commonly associated with heavy cigarette smoking
Status asthmaticus may end in respiratory failure or death if not treated immediately
Signs & symptoms of emphysema include: *Use of accessory muscles for normal ventilation *dypnea especially exhaling*DOE(dypnea on exertion)*Easily fatigued/tired *Rales/crackling sounds heard during ausculation*tachypnea(fast breathing)*Cyanosis(blue color)*WT(weight)Loss*Barrel chest(round)
A common bronchodilator used to treat sttus asthmaticus is adrenalin(epinephrine)
Emphysema causes the heart to overwork causing cardiomegaly(enlarged heart) and CHF(congestive Heart Failure/weak pump)
Emphysema is characterized by a progressive irreversible loss of elasticity of the aveoli(microscopic air sacs that respirate)
Diagnosis(Dx) of emphysema is confirmed with patient hx(history)*chest CT(computerized Tomography)*ABGs(Arterial Blood Gases/O2&CO2)*spirometry(process of measuring ventilation)
Emphysema is commonly associated with heavy cigarette smoking
Tx for emphysema includes *Removal of respiratory irritants *Bronchodilator medications(Aminophylline) *Mucolytics(Mucomyst) *Spiriva *O2(oxygen) therapy *NPPV(Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation)
Signs & symptoms of emphysema include: *Use of accessory muscles for normal ventilation *dypnea especially exhaling*DOE(dypnea on exertion)*Easily fatigued/tired *Rales/crackling sounds heard during ausculation*tachypnea(fast breathing)*Cyanosis(blue color)*WT(weight)Loss*Barrel chest(round)
A complication of emphysema is trapped air in the pleural cavities causing a pneumothorax(air in chest)
Emphysema causes the heart to overwork causing cardiomegaly(enlarged heart) and CHF(congestive Heart Failure/weak pump)
The increased air in the pleural cavities puts pressure on the lungs and can cause a collapse called atelectasis(collapsed lung)
Diagnosis(Dx) of emphysema is confirmed with patient hx(history)*chest CT(computerized Tomography)*ABGs(Arterial Blood Gases/O2&CO2)*spirometry(process of measuring ventilation)
An atelectasis(collapsed lung) can also be caused by 1.Hemothorax(blood in the chest 2.Pyothorax(pus in the chest) 3.Hydothorax(fluid in the chest) 4.Spontaneous(without cause)
Tx for emphysema includes *Removal of respiratory irritants *Bronchodilator medications(Aminophylline) *Mucolytics(Mucomyst) *Spiriva *O2(oxygen) therapy *NPPV(Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation)
Signs & symptoms of atelectasis(collapsed lung) include 1.Acute thoracodynia(sudden chest pain) 2.Dyspnea(difficult breathing) 3.Tachypnea(fast breathing)
A complication of emphysema is trapped air in the pleural cavities causing a pneumothorax(air in chest)
The increased air in the pleural cavities puts pressure on the lungs and can cause a collapse called atelectasis(collapsed lung)
An atelectasis(collapsed lung) can also be caused by 1.Hemothorax(blood in the chest 2.Pyothorax(pus in the chest) 3.Hydothorax(fluid in the chest) 4.Spontaneous(without cause)
Signs & symptoms of atelectasis(collapsed lung) include 1.Acute thoracodynia(sudden chest pain) 2.Dyspnea(difficult breathing) 3.Tachypnea(fast breathing)
A chest tube will aspirate(evacute) the air in a pleural cavity & let the affected lung reinflate
A common chest tube suction apparatus is called Pleur-evac
Tx of atelectasis(collapsed lung) includes: insertion of a chest tube(pleurocentesis- surgical puncture of the pleural space)
Cystic Fibrosis(CF) is a hereditary disease affecting the lungs & pancrease of young children & young adults
The most serious manifestation of CF(Cystic Fibrosis) is copious(large) amounts of viscous(thick) mucus secretions in the lungs causing chronic airway obstructions
Signs & symptoms CF (Cystic Fibrosis) include 1.Dyspnea(difficult breathing) 2.Rhonchi(Wheezing) 3.Persistent cough 4.Viscous(thick) sputum (mucus expectorated from the lungs)
Complications of CF(Cystic Fibrosis) include chronic respiratory infections & atelectasis(collapsed lung(s))
Tx of CF(Cystic Fibrosis) includes 1.Antibiotics for bacterial infections 2.Mucolytics(Mucomyst) 3.Diligent "Pulmonary toilet" techniques
Pulmonary toilet refers to: a.Deep breathing & forceful coughing b.CPT(Chest Physio Therapy) c.Postural drainage(head lower than feet)
Chest PhysioTherapy(CPT) is AKA percussion(clapping) & vibration(shaking)
Cystic Fibrosis(CT) also causes obstruction of pancreatic ducts that prevents secretion of pancreatic enzymes causing malnutrition
Pancreatic enzyme deficiency requires pancreatic enzyme replacment therapy
An acute inflammation of a lung(s) with an accumulation of inflammatory exudate(fluid/edema) is pneumonia
Pneumonia can be caused by variety of micro-organisms
The inflammatory exudate(fluid/edema) can be referred to as consolidation
Signs & symptoms of pneumonia include: 1.Thoracodynia(chest pain) 2.Pyrexia(fever) and chills 3.Productive cough 4.Dyspnea(difficult breathing) 5.Fatigue(tired)
The different types of pneumonia include 1.Lobar pneumonia (inflammation of a section or lobe of a lung) 2.Bronchopneumonia (diffuse/ spread out inflammation) 3.Primary atypical pneumonia(walking pneumonia)(may not require medical attention) 4.Secondary pneumonia
Tx for lobar pneumonia(inflammation of a section or lobe of a lung) includes antibiotics & pulmonary toilet
Tx of bronchopneumonia(diffuse/spread out pneumonia) includes antibiotics & pulmonary toilet
Diagnosis(Dx) of pneumonia is confirmed with a CXR(chest X-ray) & sputum C&S(Culture & Sensitivity)
Secondary pneumonia develops as a secondary disorder from other diseases that weaken the immune system
Pneumonia is more common in AIDS(Aquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome), DM(Diabetes Mellitus, cancer, cirrhosis, alcoholics, elderly, children & postoperative patients
The return of the lung(s) to a normal condition(after pneumonia) is called resolution
Pleurisy is an inflammation of the pleural membranes
Pleurisy can be a complication of any lung disease
The primary symptom of pleurisy is a Sharp stabbing thoracodynia(chest pain) on inspiration & when coughing
Tx of pleurisy includes: 1.Antibiotics 2.Analgesics(vicodin) 3.Bedrest
Tuberculosis(TB) is a bacterial lung infection characterized by necrosis(death) of lung tissue
Untreated TuBerculosis(TB) can spread to the kidneys, brain, or bone
TB(TuBerculosis) is transmitted by respiratory(breathing) droplets
Signs & symptoms of TuBerculosis(TB) include 1.SOB(shortness of breath 2.Nocturnal diaphoresis(night sweats(profuse)) 3.WT(WeighT) loss 4.Fatique(tired) 5.Productive cough 6.Thoracodynia(chest pain) 7.Hemoptysis(expectorating blood) in advanced stage
In the early stages TB(TuBerculosis) can be asymptomatic(no symptoms)
Exposure to TuBerculosis(TB) can be detected by an intradermal skin test called a PPD or tine or Mantoux
The diagnosis(Dx) of TuBerculosis(TB) is verified by CXR(Chest X-Ray) and sputum CX(Culture)
The Chest X-Ray(CRX) will show the standard TB(TuBerculosis) lesion called a TuBercle
TuBerculosis(TB) is a very serious concern for those who are immunocompromised (weakened immune system) such as AIDS(Aquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome) patients, homeless & infected immigrants
Tx for TB(TuBerculosis) includes antituberculine antibiotics (INH or rifampin) Q.D.(everyday) for 4-9 months
MDRTB stands for MultiDrug Resistant TuBerculosis(TB)
Bronchogenic Carcinoma(BC) arises in the bronchial tree and is commonly associated with cigarette smoking
BC(Bronchogenic Carcinoma) occurs more often in men
BC(Bronchogenic Carcinoma) is the most common type of lung cancer
Signs & symptoms of BC(Bronchogenic Carcinoma) include 1.Persistent cough often called a smokers cough or smokers hack 2.Dyspnea(difficult breathing) 3.Hemoptysis(expectorating blood)4.Anorexia(no appetite) 5.WT(weight)loss 6.General Weakness
Diagnosis(Dx) for Bronchogenic Carcinoma(BC) is verified with brochoscopy(lighted instrument to view the bronchi) and biopsy(Bx)(washing/exfoliation)
Tx for Bronchogenic Carcinoma(BC) includes 1.Surgery(lobectomy,pneumonectomy-lung removal) 2.Radiation 3.Chemotherapy(antineoplasmic drugs)
The prognosis(Px) for Bronchogenic Carcinoma(BC) is poor
The lungs are also common secondary sites for metastases from other systems such as breast,GI tract, female reproductive system, & kidneys
Lung cancer Kills 93,000 Americans each year
SIDS stands for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and is AKA "crib death"
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the major cause of death between ages 1 month & 1 year
SIDS(Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) is Idiopathic(unknown disease)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome(SIDS) occurs in all social, economic, racial & ethnic groups
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome(SIDS) occurs more often in males
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome(SIDS) risk increases in *Premature babies*Low Birth Weight(WT)babies *Multiple deliveries(twins)Infants born to teenagers*Smoking(2 hand smoke)during pregnancy *Poor prenatal care*STDs(sexually transmitted diseases)during pregnancy*UTIs(Urinary Tract Infections) during pregnancy
SIDS(Sudden Infant Death Syndrome may be related to decreased serotonin levels in the brain
The incidence of SIDS(sudden Infant Death Syndrome) can be reduced by 40% if infants are put down lying on their backs instead of their abdomen
The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS) can be reduced by 72% when infants slept in a room where a fan was on (Parade)
High risk neonates are commonly prescribed apnea(no breathing) monitors
Created by: pattiluv