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REL 2300

Midterm 1

QuestionAnswer
Seven dimensions of religion: Ritual, Narrative and mythic, Experiential and emotional, Social and institutional, Doctrinal and philosophical, Material.
Theories about why there are religions: Humans cannot live without organized social structures, and that religion is a glue that holds a society together; Religions are organized systems that serve the essential biological purpose of bringing people together for their common survival;
Method in the study of religion Psychology, sociology, anthropology, geography, history, philosophy, archaeology, medicine, literature, art, language, immersion, humanistics, and music.
Terms in the Study of Religion Origins and eras, practice, texts, beliefs, effects on history, politics, social impact, similarities, relations between religion, individuals, connection between religion and science, lifestyle, and geographical location to name a few.
Indo-Europeans (Hinduism) Also called the Aryans; a group of people who invaded India and may have possibly influenced, destroyed, or never even invaded. historical evidence is slim.
The Vedas (Hinduism) The religious texts often referred to as the foundations of Hinduism; Were the product of the invaders and not the indigenous Indians, or perhaps a combination of both cultures.
Vishnu (Hinduism) The Preserver/Creator; Depicted as sleeping; Avatars: (Traditionally 10)
Shiva (Hinduism) The Destroyer (not evil; destroys so he can create)
Kali (Hinduism) Goddess.
The Upanishads (Hinduism) Teachings from highly realized spiritual masters where emphasis is placed not on outward ritual performances, but on inner experience as the path to realization and immortality.
Major philosophical systems (Hinduism) Hinduism shares close ties and similarities with Jainism and Buddhism.
Brahman (Hinduism) Absolute reality.
Atman (Hinduism) Soul / Sliver of Brahma.
Karma (Hinduism) Cause and effect of action.
Samsara (Hinduism) Cycle of rebirth and death.
The Ramayana (Hinduism) A long poetic narrative in Sanskrit thought to have been compiled between 400BCE and 200 CE; It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters such as the ideal brother/king/servant/wife/etc.
The Caste System (Hinduism) The division of labor is part of Hinduism’s strong emphasis on social duties and sacrifice of individual desires for the sake of social order.
The Four Stages of Life (Hinduism) 0-25: a chaste student at the feet of a teacher; 25-50: householder, marriage, raise a family, and contribute to society; 50-75: detaches himself from worldly pursuits and turns to meditation; 75-100: withdraw totally from society and become a sannyasin
The Bhagavad Gita (Hinduism) “the song of god”; Arjuna’s predicament of going into battle; Krishna convinces him to do so. Fulfill your own dharma so it effects your karma and next life.
Bhakti yoga (Hinduism) Devotion (Bhagavad Gita)
Puja (Hinduism) Public worship.
Rituals (Hinduism) Birth – horoscope; Coming of Age – sacred thread ceremony; Marriage – saptapadi; Death – cremation
Pilgrimages (Hinduism) Kumbha Mela - held at four alternating sacred spots where drops of the holy nectar of immortality are said to have fallen; Armarnath Cave - ice has formed a giant stalagmite thought to be a Shiva lingam.
Festivals (Hinduism) Divali - four-day festival of lights; Holi – the celebration of the death of winter and the return of spring by throwing colored powders/paints on everyone;
Brahmins (Hinduism) Priests
Kshatriyas (Hinduism) Warriors / Kings
Vaishyas (Hinduism) Farmers / Merchants
Shudra (Hinduism) Manual laborers / Artisans
Moksha (Hinduism) Liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth
Karma yoga (Hinduism) Action (Vedas)
Jnana yoga (Hinduism) knowledge (Upanishads)
The Triple Gem of Buddhism The Buddha (the Enlightened One), the Dharma (the teachings he gave), the Sangha (community)
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddhism) wish-fulfiller; he who has reached his goal; founder of Buddhism
Nirvana (Buddhism) Liberation, the goal of spiritual effort
The Four Noble Truths (Buddhism) Life inevitably involves suffering, dissatisfaction, and distress. Suffering is caused by craving, rooted in ignorance. Suffering will cease when craving ceases. There is a way to realize this state: the Noble Eightfold Path.
The Eightfold Path (Buddhism) Ethical compassion, Mental discipline, and Insight.
Core Doctrines (Buddhism) Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, Nirvana, Reincarnation, etc.
Tripitaka (Buddhism) An authoritative collection of writings: rules of monastic discipline, Dharma teachings, and scholastic treatises.
Sangha (Buddhism) The community of monks and nuns and lay people.
Theravada Buddhism "Way of the Elders"; mediation on the 4 noble truths; Pali canon of sutra, vinaya, and abidharma; oldest living form of Buddhism.
Arhat (Buddhism) A worthy one.
Mahayana Buddhism "Greater Vehicle"; compassion, universalistic, bodhisattvas.
Bodhisattva (Buddhism) Someone who could reach nirvana but chooses not to in order to help others achieve nirvana. Enlightenment hero.
Pure Land Buddhism People devote themselves to Amitaha, who used his pure virtue to manifest a Pure Land of Bliss for all those who called his name.
Chan / Zen Buddhism Chan: silent meditation with an emphasis on mediation and direct insight to reach enlightenment; Zen: claims to preserve the essence of the Buddha’s teachings through direct experience, triggered by mind-to-mind transmission of the Dharma.
Tibetan Buddhism Deity yoga; prayer wheels, prayer flags, celestial beings, and the Dalai Lama "Ocean of Wisdom"
Ahimsa (Jainism) Nonviolence
Vardhamana Mahavira (Jainism) Like the Buddha, he was the prince of a Kshatriya clan and renounced his position to become a spiritual seeker. Extremely mistreated and misunderstood by his peers. He is considered the last of 24 Tirthankaras (Fordmakers) of the current cosmic cycle.
Jinas (Jainism) A “winner” over the passions.
Digambara (Jainism) The "sky-clad" group who wear nothing at all, only have a gourd and a broom as possessions, and believe that women are inferior in every way to a man.
Svetambara (Jainism) The group that stayed behind and changed their practices to include wearing simple white robes and considering women on the same level as men.
Mahavrata (Jainism) The Five Principles Jains must vow to take are: nonviolence, truth, non-stealing, chastity, and non-possession.
Festivals (Jainism) Divali – for Jains it’s an occasion for a three-day fast and an entire night spent reciting hymns and meditating on Mahavir, who is said to have attained liberation on Divali.
Pilgrimages (Jainism) People may travel long distances to worship at famous sites, many located on hills or mountains in beautiful natural environments. Many are in Bihar, where twenty out of twenty-four Tirthankaras are thought to have achieved liberation.
Pratikramana (Jainism) A process of repentance of sins during which Jains repent for their wrongdoings during their daily life, and remind themselves to refrain from doing so again. Devout Jains often do Pratikraman at least twice a day.
Guru Nanak (Sikhism) The 1st Guru of Sikhism who introduced the idea of a social order based on equality, justice, and service to all, in devotion to the One God whom [he] perceived as formless, pervading everywhere.
Central beliefs (Sikhism) Working hard in society to earn one’s own honest living (Instead of withdrawing in asceticism and begging); Sharing one’s earnings with those who are needy; Remembering God at all times as the only Doer, the only Giver.
Onkar (Sikhism) God / the Supreme Being
Adi Granth (Sikhism) The holy scriptures of Sikhism which became the final Guru
Khalsa (Sikhism) The Pure Ones who were tasked with protecting religious tolerance. They had key items to mark their dedication: uncut hair, a comb, a small sheathed sword, an iron bracelet (ring) and special underwear.
Gurdwara (Sikhism) The building where the Guru Granth Sahib is enshrined and public worship takes place
Modern challenges in Sikhism After 9/11, people confused Sikhs with Muslims and attacked them in retaliation. They have also been pressured to stop wearing their sheathed swords since they are weapons and to cut their hair.
The Harappa Civilization (Date) BCE 2500
Date of the Vedas BCE 1500
Date of the Upanishads BCE 600-100
Birth and Death of the Buddha BCE c.5th Century
Development of Mahayana Buddhism (Date) CE 1st Century
Life of Guru Nanak (Date) CE 1469-c.1539
Guru Granth Sahib becomes the Eternal Guru (Date) CE 1708
Created by: JacobGant
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