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World History C 3

Ancient China and India

What is the term for the large landmass in southern Asia that includes India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh? subcontinent
This is the zone in greater India that has two major rivers supporting extensive farming. Gangetic Plain
What is the term for the zone in central India that is a raised plain too dry for farming? Deccan Plateau
What is the term for the winds that bring dry air in the winter and rains in the summer? Monsoons
What are the two most important cities of ancient Indian civilization? Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
What advancement were ancient Indian cities known for? excellent plumbing
Why do archaeologists believe the Harappan civilization had strong, organized governments? The cities were planned
Who migrated to India in 1500 B.C.? Aryans
What were the four Varnas the Aryans divided their society into? Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras
What were Brahmans? priests
What were Kshatriyas? warriors
What were Vaisyas? merchants, artisans, and landowners
What were Sudras? peasants
What was the name for people who were kept out of the Varnas? Untouchables or Pariahs or Harijan
What kind of religion did the Aryans practice? polytheistic
What was the name of the storm god who was the chief leader of the gods? Indra
What is the name for the early sacred teachings of Aryan India? Vedas
What term is used for the single spiritual force in everything in Indian belief? brahman
What do we call religious people who practiced yoga and meditation? mystics
What is the term for blending of cultures between two groups (like Aryans and Dravidians)? acculturation
What is the oldest of the Vedas? Rig Veda
What is the Hindu term for soul? atman
What is the HIndu term for union with the universal spiritual force of brahman? moksha
What is the term used to describe the Hindu concept of Samsara, the cycle of death and rebirth in another form? reincarnation
What is the Hindu term for the effect a person's actions have on their future life/lives? karma
What is the Hindu term for religious and moral duties? dharma
What do you have to do to reach moksha? You follow your dharma to get good karma so that through samsara you might reach moksha.
What is the downside to varnas? social inequality
What is the upside to varnas? social stability, sense of identity
What did Siddharta Gautama want to find out? Why people suffer
What does the Buddha mean? Enlightened One
What do we call the following: Life is suffering - suffering is caused by desire - to end desire is to end suffering - follow the eightfold path to end desire Four Noble Truths
What does the Eightfold Path include? rules for right actions and thoughts as well as meditation
What is the Buddhist goal? nirvana
What is nirvana? union with the universe and the end of individual existence
Hinduism emphasizes rituals and gods. What does Buddhism emphasize? self-knowledge and meditation
What social mechanism does Buddhism reject? varnas
Where did Buddhism spread? mainly to China, Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia
Who created the first empire in India? Chandragupta Maurya
Which Mauryan king spread Buddhism throughout Asia? Asoka
What dynasty represents the Indian Golden Age from 320 to 540 A.D.? Gupta
Where was the greatest university of the Gupta period? Nalanda
What mathematic achievement did the Gupta make? the decimal system
What ended the Gupta Dynasty? nomadic invasion
What were the focus of daily life in ancient India? village, family, and varna
What term is used for families where parents, children,and grandparents live together? joint family
What is the term for a payment to a bridegroom that shows the low status of women in ancient India? dowry
What do we call the yellow soil carried by the Huang (Yellow) river to fields in China? loess
What do some believe is the explanation for the rise of government in China? need to control flooding
What was the first historical dynasty in China? Shang Dynasty
What military innovation helped the Shang dominate? chariots
Who overthrew the Shang? Zhou Dynasty
How did Chinese leaders explain the overthrow of dynasties? Loss of the Mandate of Heaven
What political and economic practice did the Zhou use? feudalism
What ended the Zhou dynasty? in-fighting between warlords
Who developed a philosohy that emphasized the Five Relationships as a cure for social and political problems? Confucius
What are the Five Relationships? Father to Son, Elder Brother to Younger Brother, Emperor to Subject, Friend to Friend, Husband to Wife
How many of the Five Relationships included women? 1
Which philosophy emphasized harmony with nature and downplayed ambition? Daoism
Who founded Daoism? Laozi
What cloth was long a monopoly of China? silk
What objects are the oldest evidence of Chinese writing? Oracle Bones
What is the term for artistic writing that was emphasized in China? calligraphy
Who founded the Qin Dynasty in 221 B.C.? Qin Shi Huangdi
What philosophy that focused on strength was advanced by Qin Rulers? Legalism
Why did the Qin replace feudal rulers with court officials; standardize weights, measures, coins, and even language; and repress beliefs other than Legalism? to centralize rule and unify China
What Dynasty replaced the Qin Dynasty and what is the name of its most famous emperor? Han and Han Wudi
what became the official belief system in Han China? Confucianism
What do we call Han Wudi's policy of increasing China's territory? expansionism
What do we call the Han Bureaucracy that used tests to determine who should get government jobs rather than just family influence? a Civil Service
What did Chinese bureaucrats get tested over? the Five Classics
What did the Han invent? suspension bridges, sternpost rudder, paper
What do we call the Chinese therapy that uses needles and pressure-points? acupuncture
What ended the Han Dynasty? in-fighting between warlords
How long did the Qin Dynasty last? about 20 years
How lond did the Han Dynasty last? about 400 years
What do we call groups of families that claim a common ancestor? clans
Created by: Mr McNair