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syllabus terms & questions

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

General term for the scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure.   anatomy  
Scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things.   physiology  
Relationship between anatomy and physiology   structure determines what function can occur  
Structural & functional organization of the body   1.chemical or molecule 2.organelle 3.cell 4.tissue 5.organ 6.organ system 7.organism  
Body systems(BS) - consists of skin, hair, and sweat glands; provides protection, regulates temp, prevents water loss, and helps produce vitamin D   integumentary  
BS - consists of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints; provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat.   skeletal  
BS - voluntary muscles attached to skeleton for movement, muscles attached by tendons; produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat.   muscular  
BS - Lymph nodes; Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fats from the digestive tract.   lymphatic  
BS - O2 and CO2; lungs and respiratory passages; exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulates blood pH.   respiratory  
BS - digestion and absorption; mouth, stomach, esophagus, intestines, and accessory organs; Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wasts   digestive  
BS - provides the means for responding to changes in the external environment, has th same embryonic origin as the integumentary system; Brain, spinal cord, nerves & sensory receptors; a major regulatory system that detects sensations & controls movements   nervous  
BS - composed of glands or tissues that secrete hormones; a major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions   endocrine  
BS - consists of heart, blood vessels, and blood; Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temp.   cardiovascular  
BS - removes waste (urea, uric acid, NH3); kidneys, urinary, bladder, and ducts that carry urine   urinary  
BS - ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures; produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors.   female reproductive  
BS - testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis; produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormone that influence sexual functions and behaviors.   male reproductive  
What are the 6 characteristics of life   1. organization 2. metabolism 3. responsiveness 4. growth 5. development 6. reproduction  
ideal, normal value maintained by homeostasis   set point  
slight increases and decreases of a variable around the set point   normal range  
What are the 3 components of negative feedback   receptor, control center, effector  
A deviation from the set point is the ________?   stimulous  
Changes the value of a variable   effector  
Whats a classic example of positive feedback?   oxytocin  
What is another example of positive feedback?   blood clotting  
Constantly increasing value outside of the normal range?   Positive feedback  
this imaging is resistent to x-ray penetration   radiodensity  
whats most resistent to xrays   bone  
xrays posses what?   energy  
what do you have to have for a CT scan   xray  
what is resistent to xray penetration least to greatest   air - fat - liver - blood - muscle - bone  
humans are walking _________   solutions  
Anything that occupies space and has mass   matter  
amount of matter in an object   mass  
grvitational force acting on an object of a given mass   weight  
international unit for mass   kilogram  
1/1000 the mass of a kilogram   gram  
simplest type of matter having unique chemical properties   element  
smallest particle of an element that has the chemical characteristics of that element   atom  
subatomic particle with no electrical charge   neutron  
subatomic particle with one negative charge   electron  
central part of an atom, which contains protons and neutrons   nucleus  
visual representative of the region in which any given electron is most likely to be found   electron cloud  
number of protons in an atom   atomic number  
number of protons pus the number of neutrons in an atom   mass number  
two or more forms of the same element that have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons   isotopes  
1/12 the mass of 12C   unified atomic mass unit (dalton)  
average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element   atomis mass  
number of atoms in exactly 12 g of 12C   Avogadro's number  
amount of a substance that contains avogadro;s number of entities such as atoms   mole  
mass of 1 mole of a substance expressed in grams   molar mass  
bond in which two atoms share an electron pair   single covalent bond  
bond which two atoms share four electrons   double covalent bond  
bond in which two atoms share electrons equally   nonpolar covalent bond  
bond in which two atoms share electrons unequally   polar covalent bond  
Weak electrostatic attractions between the oppositely charged arts of different molecules or between ions and molecules   intermolecular forces  
what unique properties do hydrogen bonds account for in water   High boiling point and good solvent for other polar molecules  
ability of one substance to dissolve in another   solubility  
what happens to ions when ionic compounds dissolve in water   dissociate  
cations and anions that dissociate in water because they can conduct an electrical current   electrolytes  
a larger reactant chemically broken down into two or more smaller products;   decomposition reaction  
when two or more reactants combine to form a new and larger product   synthesis reactions  
reaction that can proceed from reactants to product and from products to reactants   reversible reaction  
the loss of an electron by an atom is called___________   oxidation  
the gain of an electron is called _____________   reduction  
because one atom partially or completely loses an electron and another atom gains that electron, these reactions are called?   oxidation-reduction reactions  
all the decomposition reactions that occur within the body; oxidation   catabolism  
all the synthesis reactions that occur within the body; reduction   anabolism  
capacity to do work and to move matter   energy  
stored energy that could do work but is not doing so   potential energy  
form of energy that is actually doing work and moving matter   kinetic energy  
the minimum amount of energy that the reactants must have to start a chemical reaction   activation energy  
increase the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy necessary for the reaction to begin.   enzymes  
any mixture of liquids, gases, or solids in which the substances are uniformly distributed with no clear boundary between them   solution  
a mixture containing materials that separate from each other unless they are continually, physically blended together   suspension  
a mixture in which a dispersed substance is distributed throughout a dispersing substance; proteins and water   colloid  
substances that are proton donors; yield H+1 in solution, increasing acidity   acid  
sunbstances that accept protons; yield OH-1 in solutions increasing basicity   base  
Measures H+1 concentration on a scale of 0-14   pH scale  
chemicals that resist changes in the pH of a solution when either acids or bases are added   buffers  
important buffers in _____ _______ are composed of biocarbonate, phosphates, amino acids, and proteins   living systems  
composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and range in size from small to very large   carbohydrates  
Large carbohydrates are composed of numberous, relatively simple building bloack called?   monosaccharides  
Sucrose, lactose, maltose, and other double sugars   disaccharides  
many monosaccharides bound together to form long chains   polysaccharides  
second major group of organic molecules common to living systems   lipids  
the ______ ______ of a protein is determined by the sequence of the amino acids bound to peptide bonds   primary structure  
the _______ _______ results from the folding or bending of the polypeptide chain caused by the hydrogen bonds between amino acids   secondary structure  
the _______ ________ results from folding of the pleated sheets or helices   tertiary structure  
the ________ ________ results from the spatial relationships between the individual subunits   quaternary structure  
_______ differ in chemical structure from other lipid molecules, but their solubility characteristics are similiar   steroids  
constitutes 95% of the fats in the human body.   triglycerides  
the genetic material of cells   DNA  
structurally related to DNA   RNA  
an especially important organic molecule in all living organisms   adenosine triphosphate  
what are three carbohydrates?   monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides  


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