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A&P Lecture test TC

syllabus terms & questions

General term for the scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure. anatomy
Scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things. physiology
Relationship between anatomy and physiology structure determines what function can occur
Structural & functional organization of the body 1.chemical or molecule 2.organelle 3.cell 4.tissue 5.organ 6.organ system 7.organism
Body systems(BS) - consists of skin, hair, and sweat glands; provides protection, regulates temp, prevents water loss, and helps produce vitamin D integumentary
BS - consists of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints; provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat. skeletal
BS - voluntary muscles attached to skeleton for movement, muscles attached by tendons; produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat. muscular
BS - Lymph nodes; Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fats from the digestive tract. lymphatic
BS - O2 and CO2; lungs and respiratory passages; exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulates blood pH. respiratory
BS - digestion and absorption; mouth, stomach, esophagus, intestines, and accessory organs; Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wasts digestive
BS - provides the means for responding to changes in the external environment, has th same embryonic origin as the integumentary system; Brain, spinal cord, nerves & sensory receptors; a major regulatory system that detects sensations & controls movements nervous
BS - composed of glands or tissues that secrete hormones; a major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions endocrine
BS - consists of heart, blood vessels, and blood; Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temp. cardiovascular
BS - removes waste (urea, uric acid, NH3); kidneys, urinary, bladder, and ducts that carry urine urinary
BS - ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures; produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors. female reproductive
BS - testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis; produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormone that influence sexual functions and behaviors. male reproductive
What are the 6 characteristics of life 1. organization 2. metabolism 3. responsiveness 4. growth 5. development 6. reproduction
ideal, normal value maintained by homeostasis set point
slight increases and decreases of a variable around the set point normal range
What are the 3 components of negative feedback receptor, control center, effector
A deviation from the set point is the ________? stimulous
Changes the value of a variable effector
Whats a classic example of positive feedback? oxytocin
What is another example of positive feedback? blood clotting
Constantly increasing value outside of the normal range? Positive feedback
this imaging is resistent to x-ray penetration radiodensity
whats most resistent to xrays bone
xrays posses what? energy
what do you have to have for a CT scan xray
what is resistent to xray penetration least to greatest air - fat - liver - blood - muscle - bone
humans are walking _________ solutions
Anything that occupies space and has mass matter
amount of matter in an object mass
grvitational force acting on an object of a given mass weight
international unit for mass kilogram
1/1000 the mass of a kilogram gram
simplest type of matter having unique chemical properties element
smallest particle of an element that has the chemical characteristics of that element atom
subatomic particle with no electrical charge neutron
subatomic particle with one negative charge electron
central part of an atom, which contains protons and neutrons nucleus
visual representative of the region in which any given electron is most likely to be found electron cloud
number of protons in an atom atomic number
number of protons pus the number of neutrons in an atom mass number
two or more forms of the same element that have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons isotopes
1/12 the mass of 12C unified atomic mass unit (dalton)
average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element atomis mass
number of atoms in exactly 12 g of 12C Avogadro's number
amount of a substance that contains avogadro;s number of entities such as atoms mole
mass of 1 mole of a substance expressed in grams molar mass
bond in which two atoms share an electron pair single covalent bond
bond which two atoms share four electrons double covalent bond
bond in which two atoms share electrons equally nonpolar covalent bond
bond in which two atoms share electrons unequally polar covalent bond
Weak electrostatic attractions between the oppositely charged arts of different molecules or between ions and molecules intermolecular forces
what unique properties do hydrogen bonds account for in water High boiling point and good solvent for other polar molecules
ability of one substance to dissolve in another solubility
what happens to ions when ionic compounds dissolve in water dissociate
cations and anions that dissociate in water because they can conduct an electrical current electrolytes
a larger reactant chemically broken down into two or more smaller products; decomposition reaction
when two or more reactants combine to form a new and larger product synthesis reactions
reaction that can proceed from reactants to product and from products to reactants reversible reaction
the loss of an electron by an atom is called___________ oxidation
the gain of an electron is called _____________ reduction
because one atom partially or completely loses an electron and another atom gains that electron, these reactions are called? oxidation-reduction reactions
all the decomposition reactions that occur within the body; oxidation catabolism
all the synthesis reactions that occur within the body; reduction anabolism
capacity to do work and to move matter energy
stored energy that could do work but is not doing so potential energy
form of energy that is actually doing work and moving matter kinetic energy
the minimum amount of energy that the reactants must have to start a chemical reaction activation energy
increase the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy necessary for the reaction to begin. enzymes
any mixture of liquids, gases, or solids in which the substances are uniformly distributed with no clear boundary between them solution
a mixture containing materials that separate from each other unless they are continually, physically blended together suspension
a mixture in which a dispersed substance is distributed throughout a dispersing substance; proteins and water colloid
substances that are proton donors; yield H+1 in solution, increasing acidity acid
sunbstances that accept protons; yield OH-1 in solutions increasing basicity base
Measures H+1 concentration on a scale of 0-14 pH scale
chemicals that resist changes in the pH of a solution when either acids or bases are added buffers
important buffers in _____ _______ are composed of biocarbonate, phosphates, amino acids, and proteins living systems
composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and range in size from small to very large carbohydrates
Large carbohydrates are composed of numberous, relatively simple building bloack called? monosaccharides
Sucrose, lactose, maltose, and other double sugars disaccharides
many monosaccharides bound together to form long chains polysaccharides
second major group of organic molecules common to living systems lipids
the ______ ______ of a protein is determined by the sequence of the amino acids bound to peptide bonds primary structure
the _______ _______ results from the folding or bending of the polypeptide chain caused by the hydrogen bonds between amino acids secondary structure
the _______ ________ results from folding of the pleated sheets or helices tertiary structure
the ________ ________ results from the spatial relationships between the individual subunits quaternary structure
_______ differ in chemical structure from other lipid molecules, but their solubility characteristics are similiar steroids
constitutes 95% of the fats in the human body. triglycerides
the genetic material of cells DNA
structurally related to DNA RNA
an especially important organic molecule in all living organisms adenosine triphosphate
what are three carbohydrates? monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
Created by: 1029390060



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