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BIO201 - Final Review 1 - Q & A's from Online Lessons & Labs - Muscle Tissue

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Question
Answer
In the synaptic cleft of a neuromuscular junction, _____ is always present.   acetylcholinesterase  
Only ____ muscle cells branch.   cardiac  
The time in which cross bridges are active is called the period of _____.   contraction  
The end of the muscle that moves when a muscle contracts is called the ____.   insertion  
Claudication might more simply be called_____.   limping  
____ (color) fibers are slow (oxidative) fibers.   red  
Only _____ muscle cells are multinucleated.   skeletal  
A smooth, sustained contraction is called _____.   tetanus  
T/F Whereas skeletal muscle cells are electrically coupled, smooth muscle cells appear to be chemically coupled by gap junctions.   This is false. The gap junctions between smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled; and the skeletal muscles cells are chemically coupled.  
T/F - The more slowly a skeletal muscle is stimulated, the greater its exerted force becomes.   This is false. The more rapidly a skeletal muscle is stimulated, the greater its exerted force.  
T/F - A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called isometric.   True  
T/F Eccentric contractions are much more forceful than concentric contractions.   True  
T/F - The effect of the neurotransmitter on the muscle cell membrane is to modify its permeability properties temporarily.   True  
T/F - Once a nerve has fired, all the muscle fibers fire.   This is false. When a motor neuron fires, all of the muscle fibers contract.  
T/F - One of the important functions of skeletal muscle is production of heat.   True  
T/F - The thin filaments (actin) contain a polypeptide subunit G actin that seems to have no function.   This is false. G actin has a very important function, bearing the active sites to which the myosin heads attach during contraction.  
T/F - Oxygen debt refers to the oxygen required to make creatine phosphate.   his is false. Oxygen debt refers to the oxygen required to restore oxygen used by all of the processes involved in contraction.  
T/F - During isometric contraction, the energy used appears as movement.   This is false. In isometric contraction, the muscle neither shortens nor lengthens.  
T/F - Single-unit smooth muscle is found in the intestines.   True  
T/F - Peristalsis is characteristic of smooth muscle.   True  
T/F - Although there are no sarcomeres, smooth muscle still possesses thick and thin filaments.   True  
T/F - A resting potential is caused by a difference in the concentration of certain ions inside and outside the cell.   True  
T/F - During isotonic contraction, the heavier the load, the faster the velocity of contraction.   This is false. Once the load is overcome, the contraction is constant.  
T/F - The force of muscle contraction is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment.   True  
T/F - Muscle contraction will always promote movement of body parts regardless of how they are attached.   This is false. Some muscle contraction is used for maintaining posture, stabilizing joints, and generating heat.  
T/F - A nerve cell and all the muscle cells that it stimulates are referred to as a motor end plate.   This is false. This structure is called a motor unit.  
T/F - When a muscle fiber contracts, the I band diminish in size, the H zones disappear, and the A bands move closer together but do not diminish in length.   True  
Depends on oxygen delivery and aerobic mechanisms.   Slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers  
A high percentage are found in marathon runners.   Slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers  
Abundant in muscles used to maintain posture.   Slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers  
Red fibers, the smallest of the fiber types.   Slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers  
Contain abundant amounts of glycogen   Fast (oxidative or glycolytic), fatigable fibers  
Have very fast-acting myosin ATPases and depend upon anaerobic metabolism during contraction.   Fast (oxidative or glycolytic), fatigable fibers  
The myosin filaments are located in the:   A band  
Both actin and myosin are found in the:   A band  
he _____ contains only the actin filaments.   I band  
he thicker filaments are the ____ filaments   Myosin  
A sarcomere is the distance between two:   Z discs  
__ should affect the strength or force of skeletal muscle contraction.   The degree of muscle stretch.  
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?   Actin filaments  
Calcium ions bind to the __ molecule in skeletal muscle cells.   Troponin  
In an isotonic contraction, the muscle:   Changes in length and moves the "load".  
After nervous stimulation of the muscle cell has ceased, calcium:   Level in the cytoplasm drops  
The role of calcium ions in muscle contraction is to:   Bind to regulatory sites on troponin, changing the configuration.  
The mechanism of contraction in smooth muscle parallels that of skeletal muscle in the following ways except:   The site of calcium regulation differs.  
The first thing that stops a contraction after the nerve stops sending ACh is:   Acetylcholinesterase destroys the ACh, and they are removed from the membrane receptors.  
An anaerobic metabilic pathway that results int he rpoduction of two net ATPs per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is:   Glycolysis  
The functional role of the T tubules is to:   Enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction.  
The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to:   Regulate intracellular calcium concentration.  
__ do not act as a stimulus to initiate a muscle contraction?   A change in temperature.  
The sliding filament model of contraction involves:   Actin and myosin sliding past each other but not shortening.  
Which of the following is true about smooth muscle contraction?   Certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide to increase their numbers.  
When a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in which period?   Refractory period  
Mucle tension remains __ during isotonic contraction.   Constant  
Immediately following the arrival of the stimulus at a skeletal muscle cells, there is a short period called the __ period - events of excitation-contraction coupling occur.   Latent  
CT ensheathed in a bundle of muscle cells.   Perimysium  
Buncle of muscle cells   Fascicle  
Contractile unit of muscle   Sarcomere  
A muscle cell   Fiber  
Thin reticular CT investing each muscle cell   Endomysium  
Plasma membrane of the muscle fiber.   Sarcolemma  
A long filamentous organelle w/a banded appearance found within muscle cells.   Myofibril  
Actin- or myosin-containing structure.   Myofilament  
Cord of collagen fibers that attached a muscle to a bone.   Tendon  
Another name for a neuromusclular junction is?   Myoneural  
A motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates is called a __.   Motor unit  
Within the axonal terminal are many small vesicles containing a neurotransmitter substance called __.   ACh - acetylcholine  
When the __ reaches teh ends of the axon, the neurotransmitter is released and diffuses to the muscle cell membrane to combine w/receptors there.   Nerve Impulse  
Neurotransmitter + muscle membrane receptors causes membrane to become permeable to sodium, which results in influx of sodium ions & __ of the membrane.   Depolarization  
Before a muscle cell can be stimulated to contract again, __ must occur.   Repolarization  
Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?   Smooth  
Fatigued muscle cells that recover rapidly are the products of __.   Intense exercise of short duration.  
__ should affect the strength or force of skeletal muscle contraction.   The degree of muscle stretch.  
Myoglobin   Holds a reserve supply of oxygen in muscle cells.  
The giant protein titin maintains the organization of the __ assisting in muscle stretching.   A band  
Theoretically, if a muscle cell were stretched to the point where thick & thin filaments no longer overlapped __.   No muscle tension could be generated.  
If an individual ingested a chemical that binds irreversibly to ACh receptors in sarcolemma, __.   No contraction at all could occur by nervous mechanisms, but contraction could occur if stimulated by an external electrode.  


   


 
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