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Female Repro Disorders - MCPHS-Manchester PharmD - Pathophysiology Test 1

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Question
Answer
which type of cervical CA is more commonly diagnosed, invasvus or cervical carcinoma in situ   invasvive  
which type of cervical CA is characterized as cancerous lesions   cervical cancer in situ  
cervical CA is easily recognized in advance b/c of changes found where upon what exam   dysplastic conditions upon a pap smear  
cervical CA is detected and cured relatively ____, but mortality is still > in what race   easily detected and cured, African American  
what risk-F is assoc c/ cervical CA and is a STD   HPV  
what are other risk-F of cervial CA? 5   intercourse at an early age, promicous, promiscous male partner, smoking, Hx STD  
Cervical CA arises from ____, which LT the developmt of _____ and evetually CA   precursor lesions -> atypical cells -> CA  
the progression of the type of cervical CA from atypical cells is ____   atypical -> carcinoma in situ -> invasive cervical CA  
which type of cervical CA is localized to the epithelial layer of the cervix   carcinoma in situ  
which type of cervical CA is found to extend deeper than the epithelial layer (cervix)   invasive CA of the cervix  
pap smears detect what and where?   Changes in cell nucleus and cytoplasm, variations in size and shape via hisological examination  
Variations in the size and shape of cells including the type is aka ___   Dysplasia  
If an abnormal growth is detected in the cervix via pap smear, how would you know the severity of it   Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia growth system  
What does the grading system used to detect the severity of the cervical dysplasia describe   Changes in CA precursor cells  
What are the levels of severity c/ the CIN grading system, least – most worst   CIN 1 -3 , 1 – least, 3- most worst  
CIN1 &2 indicates what   Dysplasia in the cervical epithelium c/ possible progression  
Where does cervical cancer progress to making the change from in situ to invasive   Uterus  
What is the condition in which functional endometrial tissue is found in ectopic sites outside uterus   Endometriosis  
Where is the F repro tract is the ectopic endometrial tissue found indicating endometriosis (4)   Ovaries, posterior broad ligaments, pelvis, vagina  
What is the cx of endometriosis   Unknown  
Retrograde menstruation is charac by what and is though to be a cx of what?   Endometrial tissue movement up instead of down, endometriosis  
Dormant, immature cellular elements undergoing metaplasia in distant sites is known to be assoc as a cx for what   Endometriosis  
Metastasis via lymphatics or vasculature with uterine lining is thought to be a cx of what   Endometriosis  
Endometriosis is known to have a higher incidence in women who postpone child birth, this is a possible explanation for what recent trend   High incidence in western society, a recent trend in western societies,  
Experience menarche when is a risk-F for endometriosis   Early menarche  
Periods of what duration and flow are risk-F for endometriosis   Shorter than normal or longer than normal, heavier flow  
Experiencing what during menstruation is a risk-F for endometriosis   Pain  
How hereditary is endometriosis?   First degree relatives  
Symptoms assoc c/ endometriosis include 3   Variable but, dysmenorrhea, dyspareuria, infertility  
If a pt is experience dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and infertility, all at the same time, what is this highly suggestive of   Endometriosis  
What is used to diagnose endometriosis?   Laproscopy  
Tx for endometriosis includes (3)   Pain medication, exogenous hormones, removal of tissue  
How often does endometriosis re-occur   Usually c/I 7 yrs  
Leiomymomas is aka   Uterine fibroids  
Leiomymomas is charac as   Benign neoplasms of sm musc origin  
What is the most common cx of pelvic tumor   Leiomymomas  
The maj of leiomymoma suffers exp what s&s   Asymptomatic for the maj of the pop c/  
How is leiomymomas commonly discovered   Routine pelvic exams  
Menorrhagua, anemia, urinary freq, rectal pressure/constipation, pain are common S&S of _____   Leiomymomas  
Thew growth rate of the bening neoplasms of the sm musc assoc c/ leiomomas is known to be accelerated by what   Hormone lvl (endogenous or exogenous high lvl)  
When might leiomymomas regress c/o Tx   Menopause onset  
What is the Tx assoc c/ leiomymomas   Surgery or hysterectomy  
Pregnancy is known to be affected how by leiomymomas   Not happen b/c of lack of implantation  
How often does leiomymomas reoccur   Very commonly reoccur  
Imflammation of the upper repro tract is aka   PID  
What mayB inflamed c/ PID 3   Uterus, fallopian tube, ovaries  
Edometritis is consider a type of ____ involving the _____   PID, uterus  
Salpingitis is consider a type of ____ involving the ____   PID, fallopian tubes  
Oophoritis is consider a type of ____ involving the ____   PID; ovaries  
PID is usu caused by what   inFx of many but particular organisms  
PID risk-F include what age range   16-24  
Nulliparity, being unmarried, having multi sex partners and a Hx of ____ are risk-F for what F repro track disorder   PID; PID  
Symptoms of inFx, pain in the lwr abdomen, pus/purulent discharge from the cervix, adnexal tenderness and pain assoc c/ the cervix are S&S forwhat   PID  
What is adnexal tenderness   Pain in a site near the site inflamed from PID  
Tx of PID is   Abtc  
Diagnosis of PID is by   Laproscopy  
Complications w/ PID include: ____ -> ____ -> _____ =< _____ + infertility   Scar tissue -> adhesions c/I uterus -> struc anomalies =< Ectopic pregnancies + infertility  
DysFx menstral cycles are assoc c/ alterations in ______ that supp normal ___ ____ changes   hormones; cyclical endometrial changes  
lack of menstration is aka   amenorrhea  
what are the types of amenorrhea   primary and secondary  
what are the two S&S for primary amenorrhea   by 16 no menstration or by 14 no secondary sex characteristics  
what is typical for secondary amenorrhea   lack of menstration for > 6mo  
what is known to cx primary amenorrhea   improper dev c/i repro tract  
improper dev c/i F repro tract cx amenorrhea could be cx by what 2   gonadal dev malfx or hypo-ant pit-gonad axis malFx  
secondary amenorrhea can be cx by numerous -F, one involves changes in what lvl   hormone lvls  
What can happen to the uterus for secondary amenorrhea to dev   interutirne adhesions  
which type of amenorrhea is known to result from an inFx   secondary amenorrhea  
dietary changes including ____ (2) can cx what type of amenorrhea   secondary; low fat or anorexia  
a women with what percent muscle could be at risk for amenorrhea   high muscle percent than normal  
what types of activities if excessive can lead to amenorrhea   excessive athletic activities  
what typr of menstraul disorder is indicative of an underlying cx c/ no physical changes   dysmenorrhea  
dysmenorrhea is assoc c/ a prob where in the F   prob c/i repro tract  
Tx for dysmenorrhea is   Tx underlying cx or prob c/i tract  
S&S of dysmenorrhea includes (2)   pain or discomfort during menstration  
the maj of women suffer ___ and is assoc c/ emotional/physical changes during menstration   PMS  
a small portion of women experience PMS c/ ____ S&S and need ____   xtreme S&S; hormone balance  
the maj of women experience ____ (S&S) c/ PMS   bloating and easily angered  
women c/ a high protein to low fat ratio experience ______ b/c of _____   amenorrhea b/c their body couldnt sustain pregnancy c/ so little fat  
what type of menstral disorder is assoc c/ a dec menstraul flow   hypomenorrhea  
what type of menstraul disorder is assoc c/ more freq menorrhea than normal   polymenorrhea  
menarrhea is aka   excessive bleeding  
A women c/ turner’s syndrome may have inhereitied what for chromosomes (2)   Only 1 X or missing some of one of the X chromosomes but has both  
A women with short stature, improrper ovary development, and may be infertile is characteristic of what   Turner’s syndrome  
Anorexia nervosa can be classified as what type of infertility-F   Hypothalamic infertility-F  
Excessive exercise is a _____ infertility-F   Hypothalamic  
Stress assoc c/ the inability to conceive a child is categorized as a _____   Hypothalamic infertility-F  
Tumors and malnutrition are both _____ for women trying to get pregnant   Hypothalamic infertility-F  
In addition to the hypo dysFx assoc c/ F infertility-F, what other structure impt to hormonal control can cx infertility   Pituatary DysFx infertility-F  
When xs PRL is secreted in a women, what could this cx and what is it classified as   Infertility, pit infertility-F  
A tumor in the pit could cx ____ not allowing a women to become pregnant   Infertility  
A deficieny in ____ is classified as a pit infertility-F   Gonatropin  
Psychomimetics are classified as cx’ing what type of infertility   Pit dysFx infertility  
Shock, SCD, and DM are all assoc with ___ and ____ and is an infertility-F   Pit infarction, pit dysFx  
Autoimmune disorders are known to cx what type of infertility-F   Ovarian failure  
Chemotherapy is known to cx what type of F infertility-F   Ovarian failure  
Chemotherapy disrupts ____ and results in ____ the oocytes   Cell divison, death of  
Xs cortisol is assoc c/ what dx and may lead to what in a F   Cushing’s syndrome, F infertility-F  
Hyper/hypothyroidism my cx ___ in a F   Infertility  
Polysystic ovary syndrome is charac by ____   Obesity c/ xs hair combined c/ infertility and lg ovaries  
STDs may result in cx ____ in a F   Infertility  
Ovulation dysFx/failure account for how much of F infertility-F   40%  
Mechanical/anatomical issues account for how much of F infertility-F   30-50%  
Cerivical-F account for how much of F infertility-F   10 %  
Hormonal cx’s and malFx is assoc c/ dysFx of ____ and accounts for 40% of infertility   Ovulation dysFx/failure  
Medical Infertility management involves which partner   Both  
When medical infertility mngmt is sought, initially what is done to identify the Hx of each   Workup incl, medical, surgical, and drug Hx  
After a Hx of the partners is obtained, med infertility mngmt looks for ____ in both partners   Struc abnormalities  
What must both partners manage to reduce infertility-F individually as apart of med infertility mngmt   Underlying Dx  
Any inFx present must be _____ during med infertility mngmt   Tx  
If all else is normal and infertility is still present, med infertility mngmt last resort is ____   Alt reproductive technology  
Vaginal and uterine aplasia is charac as ____ and is a ___ infertility-F   Lack of cells in F repro; anatomical infertility-F  
___ is charac as closure of cervix and prevents _____   Cervical stenosis; sperm passage  
Interuterin adhesions is charac as _____ and could be classified as ___ infertility-F   Asherman’s syndrome  
Cervical stenosis is classified as ____ infertility-F   Anatomical  
Tumors incl ____ are anatomical infertility-F   Fibroids  
Interuterine adhesions leading to asherman’s syndrome are common after _____ b/c of ____   Surgery; scar tissue  
____ is an infx c/I F repro tract and common to F c/I 16-24 YOA and is assoc c/ ____ infertility-F   PID; anatomical  
the are numerous types of ____ including in-vitro fertilization   assited repro technology  
intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a type of _____   assited repro technology  
____ is banned but is a type of assited repro technology   clonning  
lousie brown was the first succ _____ in 1978 in which the ovaries are super stimulated   invitro fertilization  
with invitro fertilization, ______ cx's multiple follicles from xcess ___ (H)   super stimualtated ovaries, FSH  
monitoring of ___ + ___ in blood is necc in in-vitro fertilization which allows the monitoring of ____   Est & ProG; follicular development  
during invitro fertilization, when monitoring indicates, _____ is induced by an anaolg ____ , which is an exogenous ___ surge   ovulation, HcG; LH  
for invitro fertilization, post-ovulation, the ova is found by _____   aspirate follicles  
when the ova is found durring invitro fertilization, ______ happens next   inseminate ova invitro  
if invitro fertilization is succ, ____ happens and the ___ are returned to the women uterus   fertilization, fertilized ova  
if the male is found to have a dec sperm count, one assisted repro technology soln is ___   intracytoplasmic injection  
invitro fertilization may be assisted throughout pregnancy c/ ____   hormonal support  
cloning involves: _____ + _____ -> clonal zygote   removing the nucleus from a female gamete + replacing it with a nucleus from a M/F body cell -> clonal zygote  
c/ cloning once the nucleus swapping is complete a ____ is formed which will undergo dev into an _____   clonal zygote, clonal zygote  
cloning is not 100% identical to individual DNA was taken from b/c of ____ (3)   DNA in mitochondria from gamete and DNA from somatic, diff uterine-F  
one prob c/ clonning, esp Dolly was ___ b/c of ____   aging quickly, teolmere length was short and not as long as a natural embryo  
what abnormality is common to clones (2)   tumors and immune-Fx dec  


   


 
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