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T1 Patho-FReproDisFx

Female Repro Disorders - MCPHS-Manchester PharmD - Pathophysiology Test 1

which type of cervical CA is more commonly diagnosed, invasvus or cervical carcinoma in situ invasvive
which type of cervical CA is characterized as cancerous lesions cervical cancer in situ
cervical CA is easily recognized in advance b/c of changes found where upon what exam dysplastic conditions upon a pap smear
cervical CA is detected and cured relatively ____, but mortality is still > in what race easily detected and cured, African American
what risk-F is assoc c/ cervical CA and is a STD HPV
what are other risk-F of cervial CA? 5 intercourse at an early age, promicous, promiscous male partner, smoking, Hx STD
Cervical CA arises from ____, which LT the developmt of _____ and evetually CA precursor lesions -> atypical cells -> CA
the progression of the type of cervical CA from atypical cells is ____ atypical -> carcinoma in situ -> invasive cervical CA
which type of cervical CA is localized to the epithelial layer of the cervix carcinoma in situ
which type of cervical CA is found to extend deeper than the epithelial layer (cervix) invasive CA of the cervix
pap smears detect what and where? Changes in cell nucleus and cytoplasm, variations in size and shape via hisological examination
Variations in the size and shape of cells including the type is aka ___ Dysplasia
If an abnormal growth is detected in the cervix via pap smear, how would you know the severity of it Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia growth system
What does the grading system used to detect the severity of the cervical dysplasia describe Changes in CA precursor cells
What are the levels of severity c/ the CIN grading system, least – most worst CIN 1 -3 , 1 – least, 3- most worst
CIN1 &2 indicates what Dysplasia in the cervical epithelium c/ possible progression
Where does cervical cancer progress to making the change from in situ to invasive Uterus
What is the condition in which functional endometrial tissue is found in ectopic sites outside uterus Endometriosis
Where is the F repro tract is the ectopic endometrial tissue found indicating endometriosis (4) Ovaries, posterior broad ligaments, pelvis, vagina
What is the cx of endometriosis Unknown
Retrograde menstruation is charac by what and is though to be a cx of what? Endometrial tissue movement up instead of down, endometriosis
Dormant, immature cellular elements undergoing metaplasia in distant sites is known to be assoc as a cx for what Endometriosis
Metastasis via lymphatics or vasculature with uterine lining is thought to be a cx of what Endometriosis
Endometriosis is known to have a higher incidence in women who postpone child birth, this is a possible explanation for what recent trend High incidence in western society, a recent trend in western societies,
Experience menarche when is a risk-F for endometriosis Early menarche
Periods of what duration and flow are risk-F for endometriosis Shorter than normal or longer than normal, heavier flow
Experiencing what during menstruation is a risk-F for endometriosis Pain
How hereditary is endometriosis? First degree relatives
Symptoms assoc c/ endometriosis include 3 Variable but, dysmenorrhea, dyspareuria, infertility
If a pt is experience dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and infertility, all at the same time, what is this highly suggestive of Endometriosis
What is used to diagnose endometriosis? Laproscopy
Tx for endometriosis includes (3) Pain medication, exogenous hormones, removal of tissue
How often does endometriosis re-occur Usually c/I 7 yrs
Leiomymomas is aka Uterine fibroids
Leiomymomas is charac as Benign neoplasms of sm musc origin
What is the most common cx of pelvic tumor Leiomymomas
The maj of leiomymoma suffers exp what s&s Asymptomatic for the maj of the pop c/
How is leiomymomas commonly discovered Routine pelvic exams
Menorrhagua, anemia, urinary freq, rectal pressure/constipation, pain are common S&S of _____ Leiomymomas
Thew growth rate of the bening neoplasms of the sm musc assoc c/ leiomomas is known to be accelerated by what Hormone lvl (endogenous or exogenous high lvl)
When might leiomymomas regress c/o Tx Menopause onset
What is the Tx assoc c/ leiomymomas Surgery or hysterectomy
Pregnancy is known to be affected how by leiomymomas Not happen b/c of lack of implantation
How often does leiomymomas reoccur Very commonly reoccur
Imflammation of the upper repro tract is aka PID
What mayB inflamed c/ PID 3 Uterus, fallopian tube, ovaries
Edometritis is consider a type of ____ involving the _____ PID, uterus
Salpingitis is consider a type of ____ involving the ____ PID, fallopian tubes
Oophoritis is consider a type of ____ involving the ____ PID; ovaries
PID is usu caused by what inFx of many but particular organisms
PID risk-F include what age range 16-24
Nulliparity, being unmarried, having multi sex partners and a Hx of ____ are risk-F for what F repro track disorder PID; PID
Symptoms of inFx, pain in the lwr abdomen, pus/purulent discharge from the cervix, adnexal tenderness and pain assoc c/ the cervix are S&S forwhat PID
What is adnexal tenderness Pain in a site near the site inflamed from PID
Tx of PID is Abtc
Diagnosis of PID is by Laproscopy
Complications w/ PID include: ____ -> ____ -> _____ =< _____ + infertility Scar tissue -> adhesions c/I uterus -> struc anomalies =< Ectopic pregnancies + infertility
DysFx menstral cycles are assoc c/ alterations in ______ that supp normal ___ ____ changes hormones; cyclical endometrial changes
lack of menstration is aka amenorrhea
what are the types of amenorrhea primary and secondary
what are the two S&S for primary amenorrhea by 16 no menstration or by 14 no secondary sex characteristics
what is typical for secondary amenorrhea lack of menstration for > 6mo
what is known to cx primary amenorrhea improper dev c/i repro tract
improper dev c/i F repro tract cx amenorrhea could be cx by what 2 gonadal dev malfx or hypo-ant pit-gonad axis malFx
secondary amenorrhea can be cx by numerous -F, one involves changes in what lvl hormone lvls
What can happen to the uterus for secondary amenorrhea to dev interutirne adhesions
which type of amenorrhea is known to result from an inFx secondary amenorrhea
dietary changes including ____ (2) can cx what type of amenorrhea secondary; low fat or anorexia
a women with what percent muscle could be at risk for amenorrhea high muscle percent than normal
what types of activities if excessive can lead to amenorrhea excessive athletic activities
what typr of menstraul disorder is indicative of an underlying cx c/ no physical changes dysmenorrhea
dysmenorrhea is assoc c/ a prob where in the F prob c/i repro tract
Tx for dysmenorrhea is Tx underlying cx or prob c/i tract
S&S of dysmenorrhea includes (2) pain or discomfort during menstration
the maj of women suffer ___ and is assoc c/ emotional/physical changes during menstration PMS
a small portion of women experience PMS c/ ____ S&S and need ____ xtreme S&S; hormone balance
the maj of women experience ____ (S&S) c/ PMS bloating and easily angered
women c/ a high protein to low fat ratio experience ______ b/c of _____ amenorrhea b/c their body couldnt sustain pregnancy c/ so little fat
what type of menstral disorder is assoc c/ a dec menstraul flow hypomenorrhea
what type of menstraul disorder is assoc c/ more freq menorrhea than normal polymenorrhea
menarrhea is aka excessive bleeding
A women c/ turner’s syndrome may have inhereitied what for chromosomes (2) Only 1 X or missing some of one of the X chromosomes but has both
A women with short stature, improrper ovary development, and may be infertile is characteristic of what Turner’s syndrome
Anorexia nervosa can be classified as what type of infertility-F Hypothalamic infertility-F
Excessive exercise is a _____ infertility-F Hypothalamic
Stress assoc c/ the inability to conceive a child is categorized as a _____ Hypothalamic infertility-F
Tumors and malnutrition are both _____ for women trying to get pregnant Hypothalamic infertility-F
In addition to the hypo dysFx assoc c/ F infertility-F, what other structure impt to hormonal control can cx infertility Pituatary DysFx infertility-F
When xs PRL is secreted in a women, what could this cx and what is it classified as Infertility, pit infertility-F
A tumor in the pit could cx ____ not allowing a women to become pregnant Infertility
A deficieny in ____ is classified as a pit infertility-F Gonatropin
Psychomimetics are classified as cx’ing what type of infertility Pit dysFx infertility
Shock, SCD, and DM are all assoc with ___ and ____ and is an infertility-F Pit infarction, pit dysFx
Autoimmune disorders are known to cx what type of infertility-F Ovarian failure
Chemotherapy is known to cx what type of F infertility-F Ovarian failure
Chemotherapy disrupts ____ and results in ____ the oocytes Cell divison, death of
Xs cortisol is assoc c/ what dx and may lead to what in a F Cushing’s syndrome, F infertility-F
Hyper/hypothyroidism my cx ___ in a F Infertility
Polysystic ovary syndrome is charac by ____ Obesity c/ xs hair combined c/ infertility and lg ovaries
STDs may result in cx ____ in a F Infertility
Ovulation dysFx/failure account for how much of F infertility-F 40%
Mechanical/anatomical issues account for how much of F infertility-F 30-50%
Cerivical-F account for how much of F infertility-F 10 %
Hormonal cx’s and malFx is assoc c/ dysFx of ____ and accounts for 40% of infertility Ovulation dysFx/failure
Medical Infertility management involves which partner Both
When medical infertility mngmt is sought, initially what is done to identify the Hx of each Workup incl, medical, surgical, and drug Hx
After a Hx of the partners is obtained, med infertility mngmt looks for ____ in both partners Struc abnormalities
What must both partners manage to reduce infertility-F individually as apart of med infertility mngmt Underlying Dx
Any inFx present must be _____ during med infertility mngmt Tx
If all else is normal and infertility is still present, med infertility mngmt last resort is ____ Alt reproductive technology
Vaginal and uterine aplasia is charac as ____ and is a ___ infertility-F Lack of cells in F repro; anatomical infertility-F
___ is charac as closure of cervix and prevents _____ Cervical stenosis; sperm passage
Interuterin adhesions is charac as _____ and could be classified as ___ infertility-F Asherman’s syndrome
Cervical stenosis is classified as ____ infertility-F Anatomical
Tumors incl ____ are anatomical infertility-F Fibroids
Interuterine adhesions leading to asherman’s syndrome are common after _____ b/c of ____ Surgery; scar tissue
____ is an infx c/I F repro tract and common to F c/I 16-24 YOA and is assoc c/ ____ infertility-F PID; anatomical
the are numerous types of ____ including in-vitro fertilization assited repro technology
intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a type of _____ assited repro technology
____ is banned but is a type of assited repro technology clonning
lousie brown was the first succ _____ in 1978 in which the ovaries are super stimulated invitro fertilization
with invitro fertilization, ______ cx's multiple follicles from xcess ___ (H) super stimualtated ovaries, FSH
monitoring of ___ + ___ in blood is necc in in-vitro fertilization which allows the monitoring of ____ Est & ProG; follicular development
during invitro fertilization, when monitoring indicates, _____ is induced by an anaolg ____ , which is an exogenous ___ surge ovulation, HcG; LH
for invitro fertilization, post-ovulation, the ova is found by _____ aspirate follicles
when the ova is found durring invitro fertilization, ______ happens next inseminate ova invitro
if invitro fertilization is succ, ____ happens and the ___ are returned to the women uterus fertilization, fertilized ova
if the male is found to have a dec sperm count, one assisted repro technology soln is ___ intracytoplasmic injection
invitro fertilization may be assisted throughout pregnancy c/ ____ hormonal support
cloning involves: _____ + _____ -> clonal zygote removing the nucleus from a female gamete + replacing it with a nucleus from a M/F body cell -> clonal zygote
c/ cloning once the nucleus swapping is complete a ____ is formed which will undergo dev into an _____ clonal zygote, clonal zygote
cloning is not 100% identical to individual DNA was taken from b/c of ____ (3) DNA in mitochondria from gamete and DNA from somatic, diff uterine-F
one prob c/ clonning, esp Dolly was ___ b/c of ____ aging quickly, teolmere length was short and not as long as a natural embryo
what abnormality is common to clones (2) tumors and immune-Fx dec