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Blood

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Question
Answer
How many liters of blood in females?   4 to 5 L  
How many liters of blood in males?   5 to 6 L  
What are the 3 activities of blood?   transportation, regulation & protection  
What percentage of the blood volume is plasma?   55%  
What is plasma?   Liquid portion of blood. 90% is water  
What are the 3 major classes of plasma proteins?   Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogens  
Where are albumumins produced?   in the liver  
what is the function of albumins?   maintain the fluid balance between the blood and interstitial fluid  
What are the 3 types of Globulins?   Alpha, Beta & Gamma  
What are globulins?   antibodies that function in immunity  
Where are globulins produced?   lymphoid tissue  
Where is fibrinogen produced?   produced in liver and functions in blood clotting  
What is serum?   When blood clots in a test tube, the liquid that remains  
Besides proteins, what are other plasma solutes that contain Nitrogen?   amino acids, urea & uric acid  
What is absorbed in the blood and transported to the cells that need them?   amino acids  
Waste products of protein and nucleic acid catabolism are what?   Urea and Uric Acid  
List some electrolytes   Sodium Potassium, Calcium, Chloride, Bicarbonate and Phosphate  
List 3 classes of Formed Elements   Erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes  
Do Mature RBCs have a nucleus?   No, they are anucleate  
What are reticulocytes?   immature erythrocytes that are circulating in the blood  
What is the primary function of erythrocytes?   to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide  
What color is oxyhemoglobin?   bright red  
what color is deoxyhemoglobin?   dark red  
What is erythropoietin?   Hormone that stimulates erythrocyte production  
What do the cells in the stomach produce?   intrinsic factor. It's a factor necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in intestines  
What is pernicious anemia?   When the intrisinic factor cannot be absorbed  
How long do normal erythrocyles live?   approx 120 days  
Why are leukocytes white?   lack of hemoglobin makes them appear white  
What is diapedesis?   when leukocytes are able to move through the capillary walls into the tissue spaces  
What is hemotasis   the stoppage of bleeding  
What is serotonin   chemical that stimulates smooth muscle contraction and prolongs the vascular constriction  
What secretes serotonin?   platelets  
What is a mass of placelets called   platelet plug  
what does a platelet plug do?   obstructs the tear in the vessel  
What is the most effective mechanism in hemostasis?   coagulation  
What is coagulation?   formation of a blood clot  
What are anticoagulants?   inhibit clotting  
What is clot retraction?   After a clot has formed, the fibrin strands contract  
What is the function of a clot retraction   causes the clot to shrink  
What is fibrinolysis   the process of when a clot is dissolved  
What are blood vessels?   the channels through which blood is distributed to body tissues  
What are the function of arteries   carry blood away from the heart  
What are aterioles   When blood is pumped from the ventricles into large elastic arteries that branch repeatedly into smaller and smaller branches. Resulting in microscopic arteries  
List the 3 walls of an artery   tunica interna, tunica media and tunica externa  
What are capillaries   the smallest and most numerous of the blood vessels  
What are the functions of capillaries   they form the connection between the vessels that carry blood away from the heart (arteries) and the vessels that return the blood to the heart (veins)  
What is the function of veins   carries blood toward the heart  
What color is a Neutrophil   Violet-pink 50-70%  
What color is a Eosinophil   reddish orange 1-4%  
What color is a Basophil   bluish-black 0-1%  
What color is a Lymphocyte   deep purplish blue 20-35%  
What color is a Monocyte   grayish blue 3-8%  
What is function Neutrophils   they are the first leukocytes to respond to tissue damage  
What is the function of Eosinophils   neutralize histamine  
What is the function of Basophils   secrete histamine and heparin  
What is the function of Lymphocytes   involved with the immune system and the production of antibodies  
What is the function of Monocytes   engulf bacteria and cellular debris to finish the cleanup process started by the neutrophils  
How many RBCs do females have?   4- 5.5 Million  
How many RBCs do Males have?   4.5 - 6.2 Million  
What is an immature neutrophil called?   Band  
What are functions of histamine?   Increases blood flow to damaged tissues and 2. dilates blood vessels in allergic reactions  
What is function of Heparin?   Inhibits blood clot formation  
What are small fragments of large cells?   megakaryocytes  
List 3 processes of Hemostasis (stoppage of bleeding)   1. Vascular Construction, 2. Platelet Plug formation 3. Coagulation  
What is the first response to blood vessel injury?   Vascular constriction  
What type of Antigen does Blood Type A have?   A Antigen  
What type of Antigen does Blood Type B have?   B Antigen  
What type of Antigen does Blood Type AB have?   A & B Antigens  
What type of Antigen does Blood Type O have?   Neither A nor B Antigens  
What type of Antibodies does Blood Type A have?   B Antibodies  
What type of Antibodies does Blood Type B have?   A Antibodies  
What type of Antibodies does Blood Type AB have?   Neither A nor B Antibodies  
What type of Antibodies does Blood Type O have?   Both A & B Antibodies  


   






 
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