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Anatomy & Physiology I - Chapter 5: The Integumentary System

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

What is a keratinzed stratified squamous epithelium; outermost layer protective shield of skin?   Epidermis  
Name the four cells of the Epidermis?   Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Langerhan cells (AKA epidermal dendritic cells), and Merkel cells  
What produces a fibrous protective protein called keratin?   Keratinocytes  
What epithelial cells synthesize the pigment melanin?   Melanocytes  
What has macrophages that help activate the immune system?   Langerhans cells  
What cells is associated with sensory nerve endings?   Merkel cells  
Name the FIVE layers of the epidermis in order?   1) Corneum 2) Luciderm 3) Granulosum 4) Spinosum 5) Basale (Cookie-Lovers-Gets-Sugar-Brown)  
Stratum means...   layer  
What is the deepest epidermal layer and is the site of mitosis; germinating layer?   Basale layer  
What has several cell layers thick and contains keratinocytes, melanin granules, and the highest concentration of Langerhans' cells?   Spinosum (prickly layer)  
What contains keratinocytes that are undergoing a great deal of physical changes, turning them into tough outer cells of the epidermis?   Granulosum  
What is found only in the thick skin and is complsed of the dead keratinocytes?   Lucidum  
What is the outermost layer of the epidermis?   Corneum  
What is the second major skin region, is strong, flexible connective tissue?   Dermis  
Name the two dermis layers?   Papillary and Reticular  
The thin, highly areolar layer connective tissue containing a woven mat of collagen and elastin fibers is called...   Papillary  
What is a dense irregular connective tissue layer called?   Reticular  
Name the three pigment skin color.   Melanin, Carotene, and Hemoglobin  
What is a polymer made of tyrosine amino acids, yellow to reddish-brown to black in color?   Melanin  
What is the layer of skin beneath of the dermis and is composed of adipose?   Hypodermis  
Sweat glands is also called...   sudoriferous glands  
Name the two types of sweat glands:   eccrine and apocrine  
What glands produce true sweat, are most numerous, and are mostly on the palms of hands, soles of feet, and forehead; also called merocrine sweat glands?   Eccrine  
What is confined to the axillary and anogenital areas and produce true sweat plus fatty substances and proteins?   Apocrine sweat glands  
Modified sweat glands found lining the ear canal that secrete ear wax, or cerumen is called...   Ceruminous glands  
Modified sweat glands found in the breasts that secrete milk is called...   Mammary glands  
What is a simple alveolar glands found all over the body except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet that secrete sebum, an oily secretion; function as holocrine glands secreting their product into a hair follicle or to the pore of the skin?   Sebaceous oil glands  
Name the THREE hair center layers cells:   Medulla (core), cortex (surrounds the medulla), cuticle (single layer)  
Hairs can be classified as...   vellus or terminal  
The body hair of children and adult females is of the pale, fine hair called...   vellus  
The coarser, londer hair of the eyebrows and scalp is called...   terminal  
Hair growth and density are influenced mostly importantly by...   nutrition and hormones  
On an average, how many scalp hairs do we loose daily?   90  
Hair thinning and some degree of baldness is called...   alopecia  
What is the most common type, male pattern baldness determined by?   gene and sex-influenced condition  
A scale-like modification of the epidermis; made up of hard keratin and have a fee edge, a body, and a proximal root is called...   Nails  
The deeper layers beneath the nail is called..   nail bed  
The thickened part of the nail bed is called...   nail matrix  
What is another name of cuticle?   Eponychium  
The part beneath the free edge where dirt and debris are collected is called...   hyponychium  
Name the THREE types of skin barriers:   chemical, physical, and biological  
Name the skin functions:   Protection, Body temp., Cutaneous sensation, Metabolic, Blood reservoir, and Excretion  
What barriers include skin secretions and melanin?   Chemical  
What barriers provides the continuity of skin and the hardness of its keratinized cells?   Physical or Mechanical  
What is the waterproofing epidermis that block the diffusion of water?   glycolipids  
Name the FIVE substances that DO penetrate the skin in limited amounts:   1) lipid-soluble 2) oleoresins 3) organic solvents 4) salts of heavy meterals 5) drugs agent called penetration enhancers  
What is the barrier that include Langerhans' cells of the epidermis, macrophages of the dermis, and DNA?   biological  
What does body temperature regulation do?   sweat glands, constriction of the dermal blood vessels  
What has a sensory receptors and is part of the nervous system?   Cutaneous sensation  
Name the function that makes vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.   Metabolic  
How many percent can the blood reservoir hold in the body blood supply?   up to 5%  
Nitrogen-containing wastes are eliminated from the body in sweat is...   Excretion  
What is an important avenue for water and salt (sodium chloride) loss?   profuse sweating  
The most common skin disorders are...   bacterial, viral, or yeast infections  
What layer handles germinating?   basale  
Name the two stratums that can be found in the palm and soles:   Lucidum and corneum  
What are holocrine glands?   sebaceous oil glands  
What are the ABCD (E) rule?   A=asymmetry, B=border irregularly, C=color, D=diameter, E=elevation  
What is the least malignant and the most common skin cancer?   basal cell carcinoma  
Grow rapidly and metastasize if not removed.   squamous cell carcinoma  
Most dangerous skin cancer and highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy.   melanoma  


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