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Anat and phys Marieb chap 23 digestive system part 2

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Amylase   digestive enzyme that breaks down starchy foods  
Bilirubin   yellow pigment of bile  
Bile   fluid produced in and secreted by liver, stored in gallbladder and released into small intestine  
Pharynx is made up of the ____ and the ____   Oropharynx and laryngopharynx  
The pharynx is made up of ______ epithelium   stratified squamous  
Skeletal muscles of the pharynx   inner longitudinal and outer pharangeal constrictors  
The esophagus joins the stomach at the _______   cardiac orifice  
Esophageal mucosa contains ________ epithelium   stratified squamous  
Esophageal glands in ________ secrete mucus to aid in bolus movement   submucosa  
The esophagus has ___ muscle superiorly and ___ muscle inferiorly   skeletal smooth  
The esophagus has ____ instead of serosa   adventitia  
Chemical digestion in the mouth is comprised of salivary ____ and lingual ______   amylase lipase  
Deglutition involves the ___, ____, ____, ____, and ____ muscle groups   tongue, soft palate, pharynx, esophagus, 22  
Two phases of deglutition   buccal phase, pharyngeal-esophageal phase  
Buccal phase of deglutition is a ___ contraction of the tongue   voluntary  
Pharyngeal-esophageal phase of deglutition is ___ and controlled by ____ and ___   involuntary, medulla, lower pons  
Name 6 regions of the stomach   cardiac, fundus, body, pyloric, greater curvature, lesser curvature  
Name 3 parts of pyloric region of the stomach   antrum, pyloric canal, pylorus  
The ___ valve connects the stomach to the duodenum   pyloric valve  
Name the two serosa around the stomach and where they are located   lesser omentum from liver to lesser curvature and greater omentum from greater curvature to small intestine  
Name the nerves that supply the stomach and their type   sympathetic via splanchnic nerves and celiac plexus, parasympathetic via vagus nerve  
Name the blood supply of the stomach   celiac trunk, veins of hepatic portal system  
The muscularis externa of the stomach is made of ___ layers of ___ muscle   3, smooth  
Three muscles of the stomach   longitudinal, circular, oblique  
The ___ muscle layer of the stomach allows the stomach to churn mix and move food   inner oblique  
The mucosa of the stomach is made of _____ epithelium and has _______   simple columnar, gastric pits  
Name 4 types of gastric glands   mucous neck cells, parietal cells, chief cells, enteroendocrine cells  
Glands in the ___ and ___ of the stomach produce most of the gastric juices   fundus, body  
Parietal cells secrete ___ and have a ph of ___ which denatures protein in food, activates pepsin and kills bacteria   HCL, ph 1.5-3.5  
Parietal cells secrete _____ which is required for absorption of B12 in the small intestine   glycoprotein  
Chief cells secrete _____   inactive enzyme pepsinogen  
Inactive enzyme pepsinogen is activated to _____ by _____ and by ____ itself (a positive feedback mechanism)   pepsin, hcl, pepsin  
Enteroendocrine cells secrete ____ and _____ into the ____   paracrines, hormones, lamina propria  
Name two paracrines secreted by enteroendocrine cells   serotonin, histamine  
Name two hormones secreted by enteroedocrine cells   somatostatin, gastrin  
The mucosal barrier has ____ _____ between epithelial cells   tight junctions  
Gastritis is   inflammation caused by anything that breaches the mucosal barrier  
Peptic or gastric ulcers are   erosion of the stomach wall Most are caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria  
Name the steps of digestion   Physical digestion, Denaturation of proteins, Enzymatic digestion of proteins by pepsin, Secretes intrinsic factor required for absorption of vitamin B12, Delivers chyme to the small intestine  
Lack of intrinsic factor required for absorption of B12 is called ___   pernicious anemia  
Regulation of gastric secretions is controlled by ___ and ____ mechanisms   neural, hormonal  
Name the three phases of gastric secretion and times   cephalic reflex phase few min prior to food entry, gastric phase 3-4 hrs after food, intestinal phase brief stimulatory effect as partially digested food enters the duodenum, followed by inhibitory effects (enterogastric reflex and enterogastrones)  
Name the three chemicals that stimulate parietal cells through second messenger systems   ACh, histamine, gastrin  
ACh, histamine and gastrin are all necessary for max HCl secretion T/F   True  
Antihistamines block ___ receptors and decrease ___ release   H2, HCl  
List three factors of contractile activity   Peristaltic waves move toward the pylorus at the rate of 3 per minute, Basic electrical rhythm (BER) initiated by pacemaker cells (cells of Cajal), Distension and gastrin increase force of contraction  
Gastric contractile activity is ____ near the pylorus   most vigorous  
As chyme enters the duodenum receptors respond to ___ and ___ signals   stretch, chemical  
____ reflex and ____ inhibit gastric secretion and duodenal filling   enterogastric, enterogastrones  
____ rich chyme moves quickly through the duodenum   carbohydrate  
____ chyme remains in the duodenum for 6 hrs or more   fatty  
The major organ of digestion and absorption is the _____   small intestine  
Subdivisions of small intestine   Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum  
In the duodenum, the bile duct and main pancreatic duct enter at the _____   major duodenal papilla  
The bile duct and the main pancreatic duct are controlled by the ____   hepatopancreatic sphincter  
The bile duct and the main pancreatic duct join at the _____   hepatopancreatic ampulla  
Three features of the duodenum   circular folds, villi, microvilli  
Villi are made up of simple ___ cells (enterocytes) and _____ cells   columnar, goblet  
Microvilli bear ___ ____ enzymes   brush border  
____________ are secretory cells that produce intestinal juice   intestinal crypt epithelium  
Name 4 types of intestinal crypt epithelium   enteroendocrine cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), paneth cells, stem cells  
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)   Release cytokines that kill infected cells  
Paneth cells   Secrete antimicrobial agents (defensins and lysozyme)  
________ in the submucosa protect against bacteria   Peyer’s patches  
___________ glands of the duodenum secrete alkaline mucus   Duodenal (Brunner’s)  
___________ are secreted in response to distention or irritation of the mucosa   intestinal juice  
Intestinal juice is slightly _____ and ____ with blood plasma   alkaline, isotonic  
_____ is largely water, enzyme poor but contains mucus   Intestinal juice  
Name the four lobes of the liver   right, left, caudate, quadrate  
_________ separates the right and left lobes of the liver and suspends it from the diaphragm   falciform ligament  
__________ is a remnant of fetal umbilical vein along free edge of falciform ligament   round ligament  
The ____ artery and vein of the liver join at the ______   hepatic, porta hepatis  
The _____ and the _______ form the bile duct   common hepatic duct and cystic duct  
The _____ duct leaves the liver   common hepatic  
The _________ duct connects to the gallbladder   cystic  
_________ are hexagonal structural and functional units   liver lobules  
Liver lobules are composed of plates of _________   hepatocytes  
Liver lobules have a _____________   longitudinal central vein  
The liver lobules have a triad at each corner made up of ______   bile duct, portal arteriole, hepatic venule  
Bile duct receives bile from the _______   bile canaliculi  
Liver ______ are leaky capillaries between hepatic plates   sinusoids  
_______ cells are found in liver sinusoids   kupffer cells (hepatic macrophages)  
Hepatocyte functions   Process bloodborne nutrients, Store fat-soluble vitamins, Perform detoxification, Produce ~900 ml bile per day  
Bile is an ____ solution containing _________   alkaline, bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids and electrolytes  
Bilirubin is   pigment formed from heme  
________ are cholesterol derivatives that function in fat emulsification and absorption   bile salts  
Path of enterohepatic circulation   Bile salts -- duodenum -- reabsorbed from ileum -- hepatic portal blood -- liver -- secreted into bile  
______ is a thin walled sac on the ventral surface of the liver   gallbladder  
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile by _____   absorbing its water and ions  
The gallbladder releases bile via the _____ which flows into the bile duct   cystic  


   


 
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