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ap marieb ch23 pt2

Anat and phys Marieb chap 23 digestive system part 2

Amylase digestive enzyme that breaks down starchy foods
Bilirubin yellow pigment of bile
Bile fluid produced in and secreted by liver, stored in gallbladder and released into small intestine
Pharynx is made up of the ____ and the ____ Oropharynx and laryngopharynx
The pharynx is made up of ______ epithelium stratified squamous
Skeletal muscles of the pharynx inner longitudinal and outer pharangeal constrictors
The esophagus joins the stomach at the _______ cardiac orifice
Esophageal mucosa contains ________ epithelium stratified squamous
Esophageal glands in ________ secrete mucus to aid in bolus movement submucosa
The esophagus has ___ muscle superiorly and ___ muscle inferiorly skeletal smooth
The esophagus has ____ instead of serosa adventitia
Chemical digestion in the mouth is comprised of salivary ____ and lingual ______ amylase lipase
Deglutition involves the ___, ____, ____, ____, and ____ muscle groups tongue, soft palate, pharynx, esophagus, 22
Two phases of deglutition buccal phase, pharyngeal-esophageal phase
Buccal phase of deglutition is a ___ contraction of the tongue voluntary
Pharyngeal-esophageal phase of deglutition is ___ and controlled by ____ and ___ involuntary, medulla, lower pons
Name 6 regions of the stomach cardiac, fundus, body, pyloric, greater curvature, lesser curvature
Name 3 parts of pyloric region of the stomach antrum, pyloric canal, pylorus
The ___ valve connects the stomach to the duodenum pyloric valve
Name the two serosa around the stomach and where they are located lesser omentum from liver to lesser curvature and greater omentum from greater curvature to small intestine
Name the nerves that supply the stomach and their type sympathetic via splanchnic nerves and celiac plexus, parasympathetic via vagus nerve
Name the blood supply of the stomach celiac trunk, veins of hepatic portal system
The muscularis externa of the stomach is made of ___ layers of ___ muscle 3, smooth
Three muscles of the stomach longitudinal, circular, oblique
The ___ muscle layer of the stomach allows the stomach to churn mix and move food inner oblique
The mucosa of the stomach is made of _____ epithelium and has _______ simple columnar, gastric pits
Name 4 types of gastric glands mucous neck cells, parietal cells, chief cells, enteroendocrine cells
Glands in the ___ and ___ of the stomach produce most of the gastric juices fundus, body
Parietal cells secrete ___ and have a ph of ___ which denatures protein in food, activates pepsin and kills bacteria HCL, ph 1.5-3.5
Parietal cells secrete _____ which is required for absorption of B12 in the small intestine glycoprotein
Chief cells secrete _____ inactive enzyme pepsinogen
Inactive enzyme pepsinogen is activated to _____ by _____ and by ____ itself (a positive feedback mechanism) pepsin, hcl, pepsin
Enteroendocrine cells secrete ____ and _____ into the ____ paracrines, hormones, lamina propria
Name two paracrines secreted by enteroendocrine cells serotonin, histamine
Name two hormones secreted by enteroedocrine cells somatostatin, gastrin
The mucosal barrier has ____ _____ between epithelial cells tight junctions
Gastritis is inflammation caused by anything that breaches the mucosal barrier
Peptic or gastric ulcers are erosion of the stomach wall Most are caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria
Name the steps of digestion Physical digestion, Denaturation of proteins, Enzymatic digestion of proteins by pepsin, Secretes intrinsic factor required for absorption of vitamin B12, Delivers chyme to the small intestine
Lack of intrinsic factor required for absorption of B12 is called ___ pernicious anemia
Regulation of gastric secretions is controlled by ___ and ____ mechanisms neural, hormonal
Name the three phases of gastric secretion and times cephalic reflex phase few min prior to food entry, gastric phase 3-4 hrs after food, intestinal phase brief stimulatory effect as partially digested food enters the duodenum, followed by inhibitory effects (enterogastric reflex and enterogastrones)
Name the three chemicals that stimulate parietal cells through second messenger systems ACh, histamine, gastrin
ACh, histamine and gastrin are all necessary for max HCl secretion T/F True
Antihistamines block ___ receptors and decrease ___ release H2, HCl
List three factors of contractile activity Peristaltic waves move toward the pylorus at the rate of 3 per minute, Basic electrical rhythm (BER) initiated by pacemaker cells (cells of Cajal), Distension and gastrin increase force of contraction
Gastric contractile activity is ____ near the pylorus most vigorous
As chyme enters the duodenum receptors respond to ___ and ___ signals stretch, chemical
____ reflex and ____ inhibit gastric secretion and duodenal filling enterogastric, enterogastrones
____ rich chyme moves quickly through the duodenum carbohydrate
____ chyme remains in the duodenum for 6 hrs or more fatty
The major organ of digestion and absorption is the _____ small intestine
Subdivisions of small intestine Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
In the duodenum, the bile duct and main pancreatic duct enter at the _____ major duodenal papilla
The bile duct and the main pancreatic duct are controlled by the ____ hepatopancreatic sphincter
The bile duct and the main pancreatic duct join at the _____ hepatopancreatic ampulla
Three features of the duodenum circular folds, villi, microvilli
Villi are made up of simple ___ cells (enterocytes) and _____ cells columnar, goblet
Microvilli bear ___ ____ enzymes brush border
____________ are secretory cells that produce intestinal juice intestinal crypt epithelium
Name 4 types of intestinal crypt epithelium enteroendocrine cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), paneth cells, stem cells
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) Release cytokines that kill infected cells
Paneth cells Secrete antimicrobial agents (defensins and lysozyme)
________ in the submucosa protect against bacteria Peyer’s patches
___________ glands of the duodenum secrete alkaline mucus Duodenal (Brunner’s)
___________ are secreted in response to distention or irritation of the mucosa intestinal juice
Intestinal juice is slightly _____ and ____ with blood plasma alkaline, isotonic
_____ is largely water, enzyme poor but contains mucus Intestinal juice
Name the four lobes of the liver right, left, caudate, quadrate
_________ separates the right and left lobes of the liver and suspends it from the diaphragm falciform ligament
__________ is a remnant of fetal umbilical vein along free edge of falciform ligament round ligament
The ____ artery and vein of the liver join at the ______ hepatic, porta hepatis
The _____ and the _______ form the bile duct common hepatic duct and cystic duct
The _____ duct leaves the liver common hepatic
The _________ duct connects to the gallbladder cystic
_________ are hexagonal structural and functional units liver lobules
Liver lobules are composed of plates of _________ hepatocytes
Liver lobules have a _____________ longitudinal central vein
The liver lobules have a triad at each corner made up of ______ bile duct, portal arteriole, hepatic venule
Bile duct receives bile from the _______ bile canaliculi
Liver ______ are leaky capillaries between hepatic plates sinusoids
_______ cells are found in liver sinusoids kupffer cells (hepatic macrophages)
Hepatocyte functions Process bloodborne nutrients, Store fat-soluble vitamins, Perform detoxification, Produce ~900 ml bile per day
Bile is an ____ solution containing _________ alkaline, bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids and electrolytes
Bilirubin is pigment formed from heme
________ are cholesterol derivatives that function in fat emulsification and absorption bile salts
Path of enterohepatic circulation Bile salts -- duodenum -- reabsorbed from ileum -- hepatic portal blood -- liver -- secreted into bile
______ is a thin walled sac on the ventral surface of the liver gallbladder
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile by _____ absorbing its water and ions
The gallbladder releases bile via the _____ which flows into the bile duct cystic
Created by: hkrawietz
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