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Respiratory System Study Stack-Ch. 16

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

What is the name of the gaseous waste in the respiratory system?   Carbon Dioxide  
What is the main muscle utlized for breathing?   Diaphragm  
The process of gas exchange where oxygen is added to the blood and carbon dioxide is removed.   Respiration  
The air-filled cavities that connect with the nasal cavity via small passageways.   Sinuses  
Identify the structure also known as the voice box which is a semi-rigid structure composed of cartilage that is connected by muscles and ligaments.   Larynx  
The persistent inflammation of the bronchi over a long period of time.   Chronic Bronchitis  
The general term used to describe a lung disease in which the airways become obstructed.   COPD  
The collection of air in the pleural space.   Pneumothorax  
An accumulation of fluid in the pleural space.   Pleural effusion  
A condition whereby fluid accumulates in the lungs   pulmonary edema  
The air flow into and out of the lungs.   Ventilation  
Identify the main organs of the respiratory system.   Nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, & lungs.  
What are five of the functions of the respiratory system?   gas exchange, regulation of blood pH, voice production, olfaction, and protection  
What are the functions of the nasal cavity?   passageway for air, cleans the air, humidifies and warms air, smell  
Nerve that activates the diapragm during inspiration   Phrenic Nerve  
Pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax   parietal pleura  
Site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood   Alveolus  
opening between the vocal folds   glottis  
passageway for air to the bronchi (also called the windpipe)   trachea  
flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing   epiglottis  
two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity.   lungs  
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. it aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out   diaphragm  
A substance that reduces surface tension of the fluids thast line the alveoli. Prevents the collapse of alveoli and eases lung expansion.   surfactant  
movement from high to low concentration of a gas   diffusion  
What areas of the brain are involved in the control of breathing?   medulla oblongata and pons  
How does the vocal cords work?   air vibrations  
Explain the changes in the thorax during inhalation.   diaphragm contracts, compresses abdominal organs, thorasic cavity enlarges, intercostals lift ribs and sternum  
Explain the changes in the thorax during exhalation   relaxation of diaphragm, abdominal organs push on diaphragm, thorasic cavity returns to normal  
What are hiccups?   diaphragm muscle spasms  
Why do we yawn?   Due to low oxygen level in the alveoli to stretch them to their full capacity.  
How does excess carbon dioxide in the blood effect the breathing rate?   chemoreceptor detect high amounts of carbon dioxide which increases rate and depth of breathing.  
Compare and Contrast the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen carried in the arteries.   104mmHg for Oxygen, Carbon dioxide is 40mmHg  
A lack of oxygen in the blood which can be local or systemic   hypoxia  
A tracheal or bronchial inflammation with swollen tissues, mucous plugs, and bronchial constriction associated with allergic reaction   asthma  
Condition characterized by a bluish coloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of deoxygenated blood in blood vessels of the skin   cyanosis  
Condition that causes an inflammation of the upper airways — the voice box (larynx) and windpipe (trachea). It often leads to a barking cough or hoarseness, especially when a child cries   croup  
What are the functions of the sinuses?   skull lighter, resonate voice  
What factor controls the pitch of your voice?   tension on vocal cords  
What factor controls volume of your voice?   amount of air vibrating over larynx  
Compare and Contrast pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary capillary.   Pulmonary vein takes oxygenated blood to the heart, pulmonary artery takes deoxygenated blood from the heart, pulmonary capillaries are the site for gas exchange between the lungs and blood.  
What is the normal respiration rate of an adult?   12-20 breaths per minute  
What is the purpose of the C-shaped rings of tough, rubbery, cartilage that are in your trachea?   Reinforce for protection and maintain airway  
What is left after deep exhalation   Residual Volume  
Maximum amount of air that can be forced out after a deep breath   vital capacity  
Amount of air during normal breathing   tidal volume  
Total amount of air after a deep inhalation   total lung capacity  


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