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Muscles and movements

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Muscle
Origin
Insertion
Movement
Joint
Misc. Info
Lateral pterygoid   Sphenoid   Mandibular condyle (and TMJ joint capsule)   Protraction   Temporomandibular (deep)   Combined with medial pterygoid-lateral excursion (chewing)  
Medial pterygoid   Sphenoid   Ramus, angle of mandible (medial)   Elevation (slight protraction)   Temporomandibular (deep)   Combined with lateral pterygoid-lateral excursion (chewing)  
Sternocleidomastoid   Sternum (side of jugular notch); medial third of clavicle   Mastoid process of mandible   Flexion (bilateral activation); contralateral rotation (unilateral activation)   Neck (anterior)    
Scalene-anterior   Transverse process of cervical vertebrae   Superior surface of first rib   Ipsilateral lateral flexion; elevation of ribs for inspiration (if head is stabilized by other muscles)   Neck (anterior)   Scalenes  
Scalene-medius   Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae   Superior surface of first rib   Ipsilateral lateral flexion; elevation of ribs for inspiration (if head is stabilized by other muscles)   Neck (anterior)   Scalenes  
Scalene-posterior   Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae   Superior surface of second rib   Ipsilateral lateral flexion; elevation of ribs for inspiration (if head is stabilized by other muscles)   Neck (anterior)   Scalenes  
Longus capitis   Cervical vertebrae   Occipital bone (anterior/lateral to foramen magnum)   Flexion; lateral flexion   Neck (anterior)   Prevertebral; deeper, weaker than scalenes/sternocleidomastoid  
Longus colli   Thoracic vertebrae   Bodies of cervical vertebrae   Flexion; lateral flexion   Neck (anterior)   Prevertebral; deeper, weaker than scalenes/sternocleidomastoid  
Rectus capitis anterior   Atlas (anterior transverse process)   Occipital bone (lateral to insertion points of longus capitis)   Flexion; lateral flexion   Neck (anterior)   Prevertebral; deeper, weaker than scalenes/sternocleidomastoid  
Rectus capitis lateralis   Atlas (anterior transverse process)   Occipital bone (lateral to insertion points of longus capitis)   Flexion; lateral flexion   Neck (anterior)   Prevertebral; deeper, weaker than scalenes/sternocleidomastoid  
Rectus abdominis   Pubic crest and symphysis   Xiphoid process and costal cartilages (5-7)   Flexion (first 1/3, rest is gravity and momentum) (thoracic/lateral regions of spine)   Trunk (anterior)   3 tenindous inscriptions (divides muscle into 4 bellies=8-pack abs); rectus sheath (sheath of connective tissue covering abs); linea alba (line of connective tissue in the middle, crosses navel); "abs"  
External oblique   Lower 8 ribs   Iliac crest; aponeurosis (rectus) from ribs to linea alba   (Ipsilateral) flexion; lateral flexion; contralateralrotation (with legs flexed)   Trunk(anterior, superficial)   Runs downward and forward; continuous with external intercostals  
Internal oblique   Iliac crest; thoracolumbar fascia   Aponeurosis, costal cartilage (10-12)   Flexion; lateral flexion; ipsilateral rotation (with legs fixed)   Trunk (anterior)   Directly under external oblique; runs downward and backward; role in forced expiration  
Transversus abdominis   Iliac crest; thoracolumbar fascia; ribs (6-12)   Linea alba via abdominal aponeurosis   Compression of abdomen   Trunk (anterior)   Not really used in movement  
Psoas Major   Lumbar transverse processes   Greater trochanter   Flexion   Trunk (anterior, deep)   Wraps around head of femur  
Splenius capitis   Spinous process of cervical and thoracic vertebrae   Mastoid process of occipital bone   Extension; ipsilateral rotation   Neck (posterior, intermediate)   Superior/anterior to splenius cervicis  
Splenius cervicis   Spinous process of cervical and thoracic vertebrae   Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae   Extension; ipsilateral rotation   Neck (posterior, intermediate)   Inferior/posterior to splenius capitis  
Erector spinae group   Posterior iliac crest and sacrum       Trunk (posterior, intermediate)   Antagonist to rectus abdominus  
Rectus capitis posterior major   Spinous processes of cervical vertebrae   Inferior nuchal lines   Extension; ipsilateral rotation   Neck (posterior, deep)   Suboccipital muscle; broad attachment at nuchal line  
Rectus capitis posterior minor   Spinous process of atlas (C1)   Inferior nuchal lines   Extension   Neck (posterior, deep)   Suboccipital muscle; under rectus capitis posterior major  
Obliquus capitis superior   Transverse process of atlas (C1)   Superior nuchal lines   Extension; lateral flexion   Neck (posterior, deep)   Suboccipital muscle  
Obliquus capitis inferior   Spinous process of axis (C2)   Transverse process of atlas (C1)   Ipsilateral rotation   Neck (posterior, deep)   Suboccipital muscle  
Semispinalis           Transversospinalis muscle; semispinalis capitis/cervicis/thoracis  
Multifidus   Transverse process of vertebrae   Spinous process of vertebrae above (next superior)     Trunk (posterior, deep)   Transversospinalis muscle  
Rotatores   Transverse process of vertebra x   Brevis: spinous process of vertebra x-1; longus: spinous process of vertebra x-2     Trunk (posterior, deep)   Transversospinalis muscle  
Interspinales   Spinous processes of vertebrae   Spinous process of adjacent vertebrae   Extension   Trunk (posterior, deep)   Segmental muscle  
Intertransversarius   Transverse processes of vertebrae   Transverse process of adjacent vertebrae   Lateral flexion   Trunk (posterior, deep)   Segmental muscle  
Quadratus lumborum   Iliac crest   Lower rib; transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4)   Lateral flexion   Trunk (posterior, deep)    
Masseter   Zygomatic arch (medial)   Ramus, angle of mandible (lateral)   Elevation   Temporomandibular (superficial)   Wraps around angle; feel angle with clenched teeth; spasms=grinding teeth  
Temporalis   Lateral skull (frontal, parietal, temporal)   Coronoid process of mandible   Elevation, retraction   Temporomandibular (superficial)   Broad origin; feel side of head with clenched teeth; spasms=grinding teeth  


   






 
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