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Head, Neck, Trunk

Muscles and movements

MuscleOriginInsertionMovementJointMisc. Info
Lateral pterygoid Sphenoid Mandibular condyle (and TMJ joint capsule) Protraction Temporomandibular (deep) Combined with medial pterygoid-lateral excursion (chewing)
Medial pterygoid Sphenoid Ramus, angle of mandible (medial) Elevation (slight protraction) Temporomandibular (deep) Combined with lateral pterygoid-lateral excursion (chewing)
Sternocleidomastoid Sternum (side of jugular notch); medial third of clavicle Mastoid process of mandible Flexion (bilateral activation); contralateral rotation (unilateral activation) Neck (anterior)
Scalene-anterior Transverse process of cervical vertebrae Superior surface of first rib Ipsilateral lateral flexion; elevation of ribs for inspiration (if head is stabilized by other muscles) Neck (anterior) Scalenes
Scalene-medius Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae Superior surface of first rib Ipsilateral lateral flexion; elevation of ribs for inspiration (if head is stabilized by other muscles) Neck (anterior) Scalenes
Scalene-posterior Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae Superior surface of second rib Ipsilateral lateral flexion; elevation of ribs for inspiration (if head is stabilized by other muscles) Neck (anterior) Scalenes
Longus capitis Cervical vertebrae Occipital bone (anterior/lateral to foramen magnum) Flexion; lateral flexion Neck (anterior) Prevertebral; deeper, weaker than scalenes/sternocleidomastoid
Longus colli Thoracic vertebrae Bodies of cervical vertebrae Flexion; lateral flexion Neck (anterior) Prevertebral; deeper, weaker than scalenes/sternocleidomastoid
Rectus capitis anterior Atlas (anterior transverse process) Occipital bone (lateral to insertion points of longus capitis) Flexion; lateral flexion Neck (anterior) Prevertebral; deeper, weaker than scalenes/sternocleidomastoid
Rectus capitis lateralis Atlas (anterior transverse process) Occipital bone (lateral to insertion points of longus capitis) Flexion; lateral flexion Neck (anterior) Prevertebral; deeper, weaker than scalenes/sternocleidomastoid
Rectus abdominis Pubic crest and symphysis Xiphoid process and costal cartilages (5-7) Flexion (first 1/3, rest is gravity and momentum) (thoracic/lateral regions of spine) Trunk (anterior) 3 tenindous inscriptions (divides muscle into 4 bellies=8-pack abs); rectus sheath (sheath of connective tissue covering abs); linea alba (line of connective tissue in the middle, crosses navel); "abs"
External oblique Lower 8 ribs Iliac crest; aponeurosis (rectus) from ribs to linea alba (Ipsilateral) flexion; lateral flexion; contralateralrotation (with legs flexed) Trunk(anterior, superficial) Runs downward and forward; continuous with external intercostals
Internal oblique Iliac crest; thoracolumbar fascia Aponeurosis, costal cartilage (10-12) Flexion; lateral flexion; ipsilateral rotation (with legs fixed) Trunk (anterior) Directly under external oblique; runs downward and backward; role in forced expiration
Transversus abdominis Iliac crest; thoracolumbar fascia; ribs (6-12) Linea alba via abdominal aponeurosis Compression of abdomen Trunk (anterior) Not really used in movement
Psoas Major Lumbar transverse processes Greater trochanter Flexion Trunk (anterior, deep) Wraps around head of femur
Splenius capitis Spinous process of cervical and thoracic vertebrae Mastoid process of occipital bone Extension; ipsilateral rotation Neck (posterior, intermediate) Superior/anterior to splenius cervicis
Splenius cervicis Spinous process of cervical and thoracic vertebrae Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae Extension; ipsilateral rotation Neck (posterior, intermediate) Inferior/posterior to splenius capitis
Erector spinae group Posterior iliac crest and sacrum Trunk (posterior, intermediate) Antagonist to rectus abdominus
Rectus capitis posterior major Spinous processes of cervical vertebrae Inferior nuchal lines Extension; ipsilateral rotation Neck (posterior, deep) Suboccipital muscle; broad attachment at nuchal line
Rectus capitis posterior minor Spinous process of atlas (C1) Inferior nuchal lines Extension Neck (posterior, deep) Suboccipital muscle; under rectus capitis posterior major
Obliquus capitis superior Transverse process of atlas (C1) Superior nuchal lines Extension; lateral flexion Neck (posterior, deep) Suboccipital muscle
Obliquus capitis inferior Spinous process of axis (C2) Transverse process of atlas (C1) Ipsilateral rotation Neck (posterior, deep) Suboccipital muscle
Semispinalis Transversospinalis muscle; semispinalis capitis/cervicis/thoracis
Multifidus Transverse process of vertebrae Spinous process of vertebrae above (next superior) Trunk (posterior, deep) Transversospinalis muscle
Rotatores Transverse process of vertebra x Brevis: spinous process of vertebra x-1; longus: spinous process of vertebra x-2 Trunk (posterior, deep) Transversospinalis muscle
Interspinales Spinous processes of vertebrae Spinous process of adjacent vertebrae Extension Trunk (posterior, deep) Segmental muscle
Intertransversarius Transverse processes of vertebrae Transverse process of adjacent vertebrae Lateral flexion Trunk (posterior, deep) Segmental muscle
Quadratus lumborum Iliac crest Lower rib; transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4) Lateral flexion Trunk (posterior, deep)
Masseter Zygomatic arch (medial) Ramus, angle of mandible (lateral) Elevation Temporomandibular (superficial) Wraps around angle; feel angle with clenched teeth; spasms=grinding teeth
Temporalis Lateral skull (frontal, parietal, temporal) Coronoid process of mandible Elevation, retraction Temporomandibular (superficial) Broad origin; feel side of head with clenched teeth; spasms=grinding teeth
Created by: ktpognc