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Cardiovascular System

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Arteri-   Artery  
Cardi-   Heart  
-emia   Blood  
Erythro-   Red  
Hemo-   Blood  
Hydr-, Aque-   Water  
Leuko-   White  
Vaso-   Vessel  
Functions of the circulatory system   carry nutrients such as amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and O2 to tissues, carry waste products from tissues for disposal-the principal ones are urea, NH3, and CO2  
Lymphatic System   return extracellular fluid to the veins, disease control  
Arteries   carry blood away from the heart  
3 layers of tissue in an artery   Tunica intima, Tunica media, Tunica adventia (tunica extrema)  
Tunica intima   innermost coat or layer; consists of a continuous layer of endothelial cells line the lumen and a layer of supporting connective tissue  
Tunica media   middle layer that contains smooth muscle circularly arranged, elastin; this is usually the thickest layer  
Tunica adventia (tunica extrema)   outermost layer; connective tissue containing elastin and collagen  
types of arteries   elastic (large) arteries, muscular (distributing) arteries, arterioles  
elastic (large) arteries   high proportion of elastin  
muscular (distributing) arteries   high proportion of smooth muscle  
arterioles   smaller proportions of smooth muscle and elastin  
capillaries   endothelial cells covered with a basement membrane; continuous, fenestrated  
continuous   endothelial cells are held together by tight junctions. found in most tissues, such as skeletal muscle  
fenestrated   the endothelial cell layer has numerous holes, resulting in porous capillaries that allow for rapid absorption and filtration, located in kidney and intestines  
veins   blood vessels that take blood back to the heart; venules and veins  
Venules   these are much like capillaries but of larger diameter  
Veins   smooth muscle circularly arranged, more collagen. less elastin  
lymph ducts   extracellular fluid, which is returned to the blood via the lymphatic system, very similiar to the venous system consisting of thin walled vessels that contain one-way valves.  
right atrium   receives blood from the vena cava and moves it to the right ventricle  
right ventricle   pumps blood from the right atrium to the pulmonary artery  
left atrium   receives blood from the pulmonary veins and pumps it to the left ventricle  
left ventricle   the largest heart chamber, pumps blood to the aorta from the lefft atrium  
atrioventricular valves   valves located between the ventricles and the arteries leaving the heart, prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles  
vena cava   the largest vein in the body; contains two parts: the superior vena cava carries blood from the upper body and the inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower body to the right atrium  
aorta   largest artery in the body, carries blood from the left ventricle to the body  
coronary arteries   multiple arteries running on both sides of the heart that supply nutrients and O2 to the heart muscle  
pulmonary artery   carries low oxygen blood from the right ventricle to the lungs  
pulmonary vein   carries high oxygen blood from the lungs to the heart (specifically, the left atrium)  
heart valves associated with the heart   atrioventricular (AV) valves, semilunar valves  
atrioventricular (AV) valves   permit blood flow from atria into the ventricles but not the reverse, right AV is tricuspid, meaning that it has three leaflets or cusps, and it is often called the tricuspid valve, left AV is bicuspid and is also called the mitral valve  
semilunar valve   lovated where blood leaves the heart and are called the aortic valve and pulmonary valve, referred to as semilunar valves, also tricuspid valves, permit blood to leave the heart but not return  
lub   heart sound made when the atrioventricular valves snap shut  
dub   heart sound made when the semilunar valves snap shut  
circulation patterns   pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation, portal systems  
pulmonary circulation   blood circulates from the heart (right ventricle) to the lungs and back to the heart (left atrium)  
systemic circulation   blood circulates from the heart (left ventricle) to an organ and back to the heart (right atrium) ex: eye, arm, kidney  
portal systems   portal circulation refers to blood passing from one organ to another organ that is not the heart, a system which blood passes through two capillary beds in a series  
hepatic portal system   transports blood collected form the absorptive areas of the digestive system to the liver, blood from the small int., stomach, and rumen is taken directly to the liver  
hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system   blood from the hypothalamus goes directly to the hypophysis (pituitary) before returning to the heart. this system carries hormones, such as the releasing hormones, from the hypothalamus to the hypophysis  
overall blood circulation pattern   (superior and inferior) vena cava-right atrium-right ventricle-pulmonary artery-lungs-pulmonary vein-left atrium-left ventricle-aorta-organ-vena cava  


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