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ANS 214 Lab 7

Cardiovascular System

Arteri- Artery
Cardi- Heart
-emia Blood
Erythro- Red
Hemo- Blood
Hydr-, Aque- Water
Leuko- White
Vaso- Vessel
Functions of the circulatory system carry nutrients such as amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and O2 to tissues, carry waste products from tissues for disposal-the principal ones are urea, NH3, and CO2
Lymphatic System return extracellular fluid to the veins, disease control
Arteries carry blood away from the heart
3 layers of tissue in an artery Tunica intima, Tunica media, Tunica adventia (tunica extrema)
Tunica intima innermost coat or layer; consists of a continuous layer of endothelial cells line the lumen and a layer of supporting connective tissue
Tunica media middle layer that contains smooth muscle circularly arranged, elastin; this is usually the thickest layer
Tunica adventia (tunica extrema) outermost layer; connective tissue containing elastin and collagen
types of arteries elastic (large) arteries, muscular (distributing) arteries, arterioles
elastic (large) arteries high proportion of elastin
muscular (distributing) arteries high proportion of smooth muscle
arterioles smaller proportions of smooth muscle and elastin
capillaries endothelial cells covered with a basement membrane; continuous, fenestrated
continuous endothelial cells are held together by tight junctions. found in most tissues, such as skeletal muscle
fenestrated the endothelial cell layer has numerous holes, resulting in porous capillaries that allow for rapid absorption and filtration, located in kidney and intestines
veins blood vessels that take blood back to the heart; venules and veins
Venules these are much like capillaries but of larger diameter
Veins smooth muscle circularly arranged, more collagen. less elastin
lymph ducts extracellular fluid, which is returned to the blood via the lymphatic system, very similiar to the venous system consisting of thin walled vessels that contain one-way valves.
right atrium receives blood from the vena cava and moves it to the right ventricle
right ventricle pumps blood from the right atrium to the pulmonary artery
left atrium receives blood from the pulmonary veins and pumps it to the left ventricle
left ventricle the largest heart chamber, pumps blood to the aorta from the lefft atrium
atrioventricular valves valves located between the ventricles and the arteries leaving the heart, prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles
vena cava the largest vein in the body; contains two parts: the superior vena cava carries blood from the upper body and the inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower body to the right atrium
aorta largest artery in the body, carries blood from the left ventricle to the body
coronary arteries multiple arteries running on both sides of the heart that supply nutrients and O2 to the heart muscle
pulmonary artery carries low oxygen blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
pulmonary vein carries high oxygen blood from the lungs to the heart (specifically, the left atrium)
heart valves associated with the heart atrioventricular (AV) valves, semilunar valves
atrioventricular (AV) valves permit blood flow from atria into the ventricles but not the reverse, right AV is tricuspid, meaning that it has three leaflets or cusps, and it is often called the tricuspid valve, left AV is bicuspid and is also called the mitral valve
semilunar valve lovated where blood leaves the heart and are called the aortic valve and pulmonary valve, referred to as semilunar valves, also tricuspid valves, permit blood to leave the heart but not return
lub heart sound made when the atrioventricular valves snap shut
dub heart sound made when the semilunar valves snap shut
circulation patterns pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation, portal systems
pulmonary circulation blood circulates from the heart (right ventricle) to the lungs and back to the heart (left atrium)
systemic circulation blood circulates from the heart (left ventricle) to an organ and back to the heart (right atrium) ex: eye, arm, kidney
portal systems portal circulation refers to blood passing from one organ to another organ that is not the heart, a system which blood passes through two capillary beds in a series
hepatic portal system transports blood collected form the absorptive areas of the digestive system to the liver, blood from the small int., stomach, and rumen is taken directly to the liver
hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system blood from the hypothalamus goes directly to the hypophysis (pituitary) before returning to the heart. this system carries hormones, such as the releasing hormones, from the hypothalamus to the hypophysis
overall blood circulation pattern (superior and inferior) vena cava-right atrium-right ventricle-pulmonary artery-lungs-pulmonary vein-left atrium-left ventricle-aorta-organ-vena cava
Created by: adekkers



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