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The Skull

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protects the brain   cranium  
forms superior, lateral, posterior surfaces & forehead   cranial vault  
forms inferior aspect of skull   base  
forms framework of face, sense organs, & teeth   facial bones  
2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 frontal, 1 occipital, 1 sphenoid, 1 ethmoid   cranial bones (8)  
forms anterior part of cranium; joins posteriorly w/parietal bones via coronal suture; shell-shaped   frontal bone  
supraorbital margins, supraorbital notch, anterior cranial fossa, & frontal sinuses are __ __ of frontal bone   major markings  
parietal bones form __ & __ aspect of skull   superior; lateral  
coronal, sagittal, lambdoid & squamous   sutures associated w/parietal bones  
located btwn parietal & frontal bones   coronal suture  
located btwn right & left parietal bones   sagittal suture  
located btwn parietal & occipital bones   lambdoid suture  
located btwn parietal & temporal bones; scale-like suture, one w/opposing margins that are scale-like & overlapping   squamous suture  
forms most of skull's posterior wall & base; articulates anteriorly w/paired parietal & temporal bones via lamboid & occipitomastoid sutures   occipital bone  
foramen magnum is located in __ bone, considered major marking   occipital  
foramen magnum, occipital condyles, hypoglossal canal, external occipital protuberance, & posterior cranial fossa are all   major markings of occipital bone  
first cervical vertebra makes joint at __ __   occipital condyles  
projection from under-surface of basilar portion of occipital bone; , giving attachment to fibrous raphe of pharynx   pharyngeal tubercle  
1 of 2 elongated, oval facets on under-surface of occipital bone; 1 on each side of foramen magnum, which articulate w/atlas   occipital condyle  
large opening in basal part of occipital bone through which spinal cord becomes continuous w/medulla oblongata   foramen magnum  
depression behind condyle of occipital bone in which posterior margin of superior facet of atlas lies in extension   condylar fossa  
ridge that extends laterally from external occipital crest, toward jugular process of occipital bone   inferior nuchal line  
ridge that extends laterally from external occipital protuberance, toward lateral angle of occipital bone   superior nuchal line  
ridge extending from external occipital protuberance to border of foramen magnum   external occipital crest  
prominence about center of outer surface of squamous portion of the occipital bone; attachment to ligamentum nuchae   external occipital protuberance  
relating to basilar process of occipital bone   basioccipital  
developmental basilar process of occipital bone that unites w/condylar portions around 4th/5th year; becomes basilar part of occipital bone   basioccipital bone  
nipple-like projection of petrous part of temporal bone   mastoid process  
anterior process of temporal bone that articulates w/temporal process of zygomatic bone to form zygomatic arch   zygomatic process  
broad, flat, thin (scale-like) anterior & superior portion of temporal bone forming part of lateral wall of cranial vault; vertical part   squamous region  
smooth portion of mandibular articular fossa & eminence of temporal bone that articulates with disc of temporomandibular joint   articular surface of mandibular fossa  
portion of petrous part of temporal bone bearing mastoid process   mastoid region  
medial two thirds, which is formed as tympanic plate of temporal bone develops   external acoustic meatus  
bony plate forming greater part of anterior wall of bony part of external acoustic meatus & tympanic cavity, & posterior wall of mandibular fossa   tympanic plate of temporal bone  
temporal bones major markings in squamous region   zygomatic process & mandibular fossa  
temporal bones major markings in tympanic region   external acoustic meatus & styloid process  
temporal bones major markings in mastoid region   mastoid process & stylomastoid foramen  
slender, needle-like, pointed projection running downward & slightly forward from base of inferior surface of petrous portion of temporal bone where it joins the tympanic portion   styloid process  
distal/external opening of facial canal on inferior surface of petrous portion of temporal bone, btwn styloid & mastoid processes   stylomastoid foramen  
stylomastoid foramen transmits the   VII N (facial nerve)  
petrous part of temporal bone forms part of   cranial base btwn occipital & sphenoid bones  
petrous part of temporal bone, anterior & posterior slopes lie in   middle & posterior cranial fossae  
petrous part of temporal bone houses __ foramen   jugular  
passage/fissure between the petrous portion of temporal bone & jugular process of occipital bone   jugular foramen  
passage through petrous part of temporal bone from its inferior surface upward, medially, & anteriorly to apex where it opens posterior & superior to site of foramen lacerum   carotid canal  
carotid canal transmits the __ carotid arteries   internal  
squamous part of temporal bone, epidural space; injury to middle meningeal arteries   epidural hematoma  
in epidural hematoma, rapid bleeding occurs btwn   outermost membrane covering brain & the bone  
outermost membrane covering brain   dura  
injury to veins in subdural space, slower bleeding   subdural hematoma  
inflammation of mastoid sinuses; infection of mastoid air cells   mastoiditis  
mastoid process contains mastoid __   sinuses  
butterfly-shaped bone, forms part of middle cranial fossa   sphenoid bone  
short canal through lesser wing of sphenoid bone at apex of orbit that gives passage to optic nerve & ophthalmic artery   optic canal  
groove on upper surface of sphenoid bone running transversely btwn optic canals bounded anteriorly by sphenoidal limbus & posteriorly by tuberculum sellae   chiasmatic groove  
one of bilateral pair of triangular, pointed plates extending laterally from anterolateral body of sphenoid bone   lesser wing  
strong squamous processes extending in broad superolateral curve from body of sphenoid bone   greater wing  
fossa of sphenoid bone housing pituitary gland; located in sella turcica   hypophyseal fossa  
posteriorly directed projection that is medial end of sphenoidal ridge (lesser wing of sphenoid)   anterior clinoid process  
sharp superolateral corners of dorsum sellae that provide attachment for connective tissue fibers that radiate within tentorium cerebelli   posterior clinoid process  
opening in base of greater wing of sphenoid bone, transmitting maxillary nerve   foramen rotundum  
large oval opening in base of greater wing of sphenoid bone   foramen ovale  
opening in base of greater wing of sphenoid bone, anterior to spine of sphenoid   foramen spinosum  
square portion of bone on body of sphenoid posterior to sella turcica/hypophyseal fossa   dorsum sellae  
central portion of sphenoid bone from which greater & lesser wings & pterygoid processes arise; sphenoidal sinuses lie within it   sphenoid body  
sella turcica & hypophyseal fossa house   pituitary gland  
cleft btwn greater & lesser wings of sphenoid, establishing channel of communication btwn middle cranial fossa & orbit   superior orbital fissure  
deeply placed, lies btwn sphenoid & nasal bone   ethmoid bone  
cribriform plate, cista galli, perpendicular plate, lateral masses & nasal conchae, & ethmoid sinuses are   major markings of ethmoid sinuses  
triangular midline process extending superiorly from cribriform plate; dura attaches   crista galli of ethmoid bone  
openings in cribriform plate of ethmoid bone, transmitting approx 20 bundles of nerve fibers that collectively constitute olfactory nerve (CN I)   olfactory foramen  
olfactory foramen is also known as   cribriform foramina  
thin plate of ethmoid bone forming part of medial wall of orbit & lateral wall for ethmoidal labyrinth   orbital plate  
ethmoidal air cells; evaginations of mucous membrane of middle/superior meatus of nasal cavity into ethmoidal labyrinth, forming multiple small paranasal sinuses; subdivided into anterior, middle & posterior   ethmoidal sinuses  
thin plate of bone projecting downward from crista galli of ethmoid; it forms part of nasal septum   perpendicular plate  
middle thin, spongy, bony plate w/curved margins, part of ethmoidal labyrinth, projecting from lateral wall of nasal cavity & separating superior meatus from middle meatus   middle nasal concha  
horizontal plate from which are suspended labyrinth, on either side, & lamina perpendicularis in center; olfactory nerves pass from nasal cavities to brain   cribriform plate of ethmoid bone  
supports frontal lobe of brain; frontal bone, lesser wings of sphenoid, cribriform plate of ethmoid   anterior cranial fossa  
supports temporal lobes; greater wings of sphenoid, anterior slope petrous part of temporal bone   middle cranial fossa  
supports cerebellum; posterior slope of petrous bone, occipital bone   posterior cranial fossa  
consists of a body, rami meeting it at angles; lower jaw   mandible  
coronoid process, mandibular condyle, alveolar margin, mandibular foramen, mental foramen   major markings of mandible  
synovial articulation btwn head of mandible & mandibular fossa & articular tubercle of temporal bone; fibrocartilaginous articular disc divides joint into 2 cavities   temporomandibular joint  
smooth portion of the mandibular articular fossa & eminence of temporal bone that articulates with disc of temporomandibular joint   mandibular fossa of temporal bone  
triangular anterior process of mandibular ramus, giving attachment to temporal muscle   coronoid process of the mandible  
opening into the mandibular canal on medial surface of ramus of mandible giving passage to inferior alveolar nerve, artery, & vein   mandibular foramen  
projecting ridge on inferior surface of body of maxilla that contains tooth sockets   alveolar margin of maxilla  
anterior opening of mandibular canal on body of mandible lateral to & above mental tubercle; gives passage to mental artery & nerve   mental foramen  
heavy, U-shaped, horizontal portion of mandible extending posteriorly to angle where it is continuous with ramus; it supports lower teeth   body of mandible  
formed by lower margin of body & posterior margin of ramus of mandible   mandibular angle  
upturned perpendicular extremity of mandible on either side; it gives attachment on its lateral surface to masseter muscle   ramus of mandible  
articular process of the ramus of mandible; it includes head & neck of mandible, & pterygoid fovea   mandibular condyle  
deep notch btwn condylar & coronoid processes of mandible   mandibular notch  
medially fused bones that make up upper jaw   maxillary bones  
palatine process, frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar margin, & maxillary sinuses are   major markings of maxillary bones  
medially directed shelves from maxillae that, w/horizontal plate of palatine bone; form bony palate   palatine process of maxilla  
upward extension from body of maxilla, which articulates w/frontal bone   frontal process of maxilla  
rough projection from maxilla that articulates w/zygomatic bone   zygomatic process of maxilla  
superior aspect of body of mandible, containing tooth sockets of lower jaw   alveolar margin of mandible  
largest of paranasal sinuses occupying body of maxilla; communicates w/middle meatus of nose   maxillary sinuses  
paired air-filled cavities in bones of face, lined by mucous membrane continuous with that of nasal cavity   paranasal sinuses  
paranasal sinuses are found in 5 skull bones   frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, & paired maxillary bones  
smooth, triangular, slightly concave plate of bone extending posteriorly from body of maxilla to form most of floor of orbit   orbital surface of maxilla  
external opening of infraorbital canal, on anterior surface of body of maxilla   infraorbital foramen  
pointed projection at anterior extremity of intermaxillary suture   anterior nasal spine  
form zygomatic arch w/zygomatic process of temporal bone & form inferolateral margins of orbits   zygomatic bones  
zygomatic bones are also known as   cheek bones  
form bridge of nose   nasal bones  
form part of medial walls of orbit, contain the lacrimal fossa that houses the lacrimal sac   lacrimal bones  
irregularly rectangular thin plate, forming part of medial wall of orbit posterior to frontal process of maxilla   lacrimal bone  
lacrimal bone is __ for inferior nasal concha, ethmoid, frontal, & maxillary bones   articulation  
bone of extremely irregular form on each side of skull; situated in posterior part of nasal cavity btwn maxilla & pterygoid process of sphenoid bone; contains horizontal & vertical (perpendicular) plates   palatine bone  
__ bone articulates w/maxilla, inferior nasal concha, sphenoid, & ethmoid bones, the vomer & its fellow of the opposite side   palatine  
joins bone of opposite side & forms back part of hard palate   horizontal plate  
extended into 3 processes; helps to form floor of orbit, outer wall of nasal cavity, & several adjoining part; extends vertically upward from horizontal lamina   perpendicular plate  
forms part of nasal septum   vomer  
form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity   inferior nasal conchae  
thin, rectangular; formed by orbital plate of ethmoid, lacrimal, frontal, & small part of sphenoid bones; fossa for lacrimal sac lies at its anterior limit   medial wall of orbit  
triangular wall of orbit formed by zygomatic bone, greater wing of sphenoid bone, & small part of frontal bone; posteriorly it is bounded by superior & inferior orbital fissures   lateral wall of orbit  
shortest of 4 walls of orbit, sloping upward from orbital margin; it is composed of maxilla & orbital process of palatine bone   floor of orbit  
formed by orbital plate of frontal bone & lesser wing of sphenoid bone, optic canal opens at its posterior limit; an indentation, fossa for lacrimal gland, is located in anterolateral part of roof   roof of orbit  
cavity constructed of bone & hyaline cartilage   nasal  
curved, relatively short, anteroposterior passage on each side of nose that occupies middle 3rd of lateral wall of a nasal   superior meatus  
curved anteroposterior passage in each nasal cavity; situated below middle nasal concha & extends along entire superior border of inferior nasal conch   middle meatus  
space extending along lateral wall of nasal cavity btwn inferior nasal concha & floor of nasal cavity   inferior meatus  
either of 2 air spaces lined w/mucous membrane, each of which lies w/in frontal bone, above one of orbits   frontal sinus  
upper of 2 thin bony processes of ethmoid bone on lateral wall of each nasal fossa that forms upper boundary of superior meatus of nose   superior nasal concha  
lower of 2 thin bony processes of ethmoid bone on lateral wall of each nasal fossa that separates superior & middle meatuses of nose   middle nasal concha  
separate curved bony plate that is largest of the 3 & separates inferior & middle meatuses of nose   inferior nasal concha  
superior nasal concha & middle nasal concha are part   of the ethmoid bone  
either of 2 bones of skull that lie in front of frontal bones & are oblong in shape, forming by their junction bridge of nose & partly covering the nasal cavity   nasal bone  
formed by union of processes of 2 premaxillae & projects upward btwn anterior nares   anterior nasal spine  
either of 2 membrane bone elements of upper jaw that lie lateral to premaxillae & bear most of teeth   maxillary bone  
either of 2 irregular cavities in body of sphenoid bone that communicate w/nasal cavities   sphenoid sinus  
long process extending downward from junction of body & greater wing of sphenoid bone on either side   pterygoid process of sphenoid bone  
depression in middle line of upper surface of sphenoid bone in which pituitary gland is lodged   sella turcica  
air enters from nasal cavity & mucus drains into nasal cavity from sinuses   in paranasal sinuses  
lighten skull & humidify inspired air   function of paranasal sinuses  
U-shaped bone/complex of bones that is situated btwn base of tongue & larynx; supports tongue, larynx, & their muscles   hyoid bone  
hyoid bone is only bone in body that   does not articulate directly w/another bone  
hyoid bone lies just inferior to   mandible in anterior neck  
larger & more lateral of 2 processes on either side of hyoid bone   greater horn  
shorter & more medial of 2 processes on either side of hyoid bone   lesser horn  
part of hyoid bone, from which greater & lesser horns extend   body of hyoid bone  
body;s most complex bony structure; formed by cranial & facial bones (total of 22)   skull  
bony protective encasement of brain & organs of hearing & equilibrium   cranium  
immovable fibrous joint   suture  
the one exception that all bones of skull are united by sutures   mandible  
cranium divided into __ & __   vault; base  
forms superior, lateral & posterior aspects of skull as well as forehead   cranial vault  
cranial vault also called   calvaria  
forms skull's inferior aspect   cranial base  
internally prominent bony ridges that divide cranial base into anterior, middle, & posterior   fossae  
brain is said to occupy   cranial cavity  
brain sits snug in   cranial fossae  
because __ __ of cranium is curved, it is self-bracing   superior aspect  
thickened superior margins of orbits that lie under eyebrows   supraorbital margin  
notch/foramen in bony border of upper inner part of orbit serving for passage of supraorbital nerve, artery, & vein   supraorbital notch  
smooth prominence btwn eyebrows   glabella  
line of union of frontal & of 2 nasal bones   frontonasal suture  
occipital bone joins w/sphenoid bone in cranial floor via its __ __, which bears midline projection called pharyngeal tubercle   basilar region  
hidden medially & superiorly to each occipital condyle; cranial nerve XII passes   hypoglossal canal  
sheetlike elastic ligament that connects vertebrae of neck to skull   ligamentum nuchae  
deep; contributes to cranial base; looks like miniature mountain ridge btwn occipital bone posteriorly & sphenoid anteriorly   petrous part of temporal bone  


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