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A & P I - Chp7

The Skull

protects the brain cranium
forms superior, lateral, posterior surfaces & forehead cranial vault
forms inferior aspect of skull base
forms framework of face, sense organs, & teeth facial bones
2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 frontal, 1 occipital, 1 sphenoid, 1 ethmoid cranial bones (8)
forms anterior part of cranium; joins posteriorly w/parietal bones via coronal suture; shell-shaped frontal bone
supraorbital margins, supraorbital notch, anterior cranial fossa, & frontal sinuses are __ __ of frontal bone major markings
parietal bones form __ & __ aspect of skull superior; lateral
coronal, sagittal, lambdoid & squamous sutures associated w/parietal bones
located btwn parietal & frontal bones coronal suture
located btwn right & left parietal bones sagittal suture
located btwn parietal & occipital bones lambdoid suture
located btwn parietal & temporal bones; scale-like suture, one w/opposing margins that are scale-like & overlapping squamous suture
forms most of skull's posterior wall & base; articulates anteriorly w/paired parietal & temporal bones via lamboid & occipitomastoid sutures occipital bone
foramen magnum is located in __ bone, considered major marking occipital
foramen magnum, occipital condyles, hypoglossal canal, external occipital protuberance, & posterior cranial fossa are all major markings of occipital bone
first cervical vertebra makes joint at __ __ occipital condyles
projection from under-surface of basilar portion of occipital bone; , giving attachment to fibrous raphe of pharynx pharyngeal tubercle
1 of 2 elongated, oval facets on under-surface of occipital bone; 1 on each side of foramen magnum, which articulate w/atlas occipital condyle
large opening in basal part of occipital bone through which spinal cord becomes continuous w/medulla oblongata foramen magnum
depression behind condyle of occipital bone in which posterior margin of superior facet of atlas lies in extension condylar fossa
ridge that extends laterally from external occipital crest, toward jugular process of occipital bone inferior nuchal line
ridge that extends laterally from external occipital protuberance, toward lateral angle of occipital bone superior nuchal line
ridge extending from external occipital protuberance to border of foramen magnum external occipital crest
prominence about center of outer surface of squamous portion of the occipital bone; attachment to ligamentum nuchae external occipital protuberance
relating to basilar process of occipital bone basioccipital
developmental basilar process of occipital bone that unites w/condylar portions around 4th/5th year; becomes basilar part of occipital bone basioccipital bone
nipple-like projection of petrous part of temporal bone mastoid process
anterior process of temporal bone that articulates w/temporal process of zygomatic bone to form zygomatic arch zygomatic process
broad, flat, thin (scale-like) anterior & superior portion of temporal bone forming part of lateral wall of cranial vault; vertical part squamous region
smooth portion of mandibular articular fossa & eminence of temporal bone that articulates with disc of temporomandibular joint articular surface of mandibular fossa
portion of petrous part of temporal bone bearing mastoid process mastoid region
medial two thirds, which is formed as tympanic plate of temporal bone develops external acoustic meatus
bony plate forming greater part of anterior wall of bony part of external acoustic meatus & tympanic cavity, & posterior wall of mandibular fossa tympanic plate of temporal bone
temporal bones major markings in squamous region zygomatic process & mandibular fossa
temporal bones major markings in tympanic region external acoustic meatus & styloid process
temporal bones major markings in mastoid region mastoid process & stylomastoid foramen
slender, needle-like, pointed projection running downward & slightly forward from base of inferior surface of petrous portion of temporal bone where it joins the tympanic portion styloid process
distal/external opening of facial canal on inferior surface of petrous portion of temporal bone, btwn styloid & mastoid processes stylomastoid foramen
stylomastoid foramen transmits the VII N (facial nerve)
petrous part of temporal bone forms part of cranial base btwn occipital & sphenoid bones
petrous part of temporal bone, anterior & posterior slopes lie in middle & posterior cranial fossae
petrous part of temporal bone houses __ foramen jugular
passage/fissure between the petrous portion of temporal bone & jugular process of occipital bone jugular foramen
passage through petrous part of temporal bone from its inferior surface upward, medially, & anteriorly to apex where it opens posterior & superior to site of foramen lacerum carotid canal
carotid canal transmits the __ carotid arteries internal
squamous part of temporal bone, epidural space; injury to middle meningeal arteries epidural hematoma
in epidural hematoma, rapid bleeding occurs btwn outermost membrane covering brain & the bone
outermost membrane covering brain dura
injury to veins in subdural space, slower bleeding subdural hematoma
inflammation of mastoid sinuses; infection of mastoid air cells mastoiditis
mastoid process contains mastoid __ sinuses
butterfly-shaped bone, forms part of middle cranial fossa sphenoid bone
short canal through lesser wing of sphenoid bone at apex of orbit that gives passage to optic nerve & ophthalmic artery optic canal
groove on upper surface of sphenoid bone running transversely btwn optic canals bounded anteriorly by sphenoidal limbus & posteriorly by tuberculum sellae chiasmatic groove
one of bilateral pair of triangular, pointed plates extending laterally from anterolateral body of sphenoid bone lesser wing
strong squamous processes extending in broad superolateral curve from body of sphenoid bone greater wing
fossa of sphenoid bone housing pituitary gland; located in sella turcica hypophyseal fossa
posteriorly directed projection that is medial end of sphenoidal ridge (lesser wing of sphenoid) anterior clinoid process
sharp superolateral corners of dorsum sellae that provide attachment for connective tissue fibers that radiate within tentorium cerebelli posterior clinoid process
opening in base of greater wing of sphenoid bone, transmitting maxillary nerve foramen rotundum
large oval opening in base of greater wing of sphenoid bone foramen ovale
opening in base of greater wing of sphenoid bone, anterior to spine of sphenoid foramen spinosum
square portion of bone on body of sphenoid posterior to sella turcica/hypophyseal fossa dorsum sellae
central portion of sphenoid bone from which greater & lesser wings & pterygoid processes arise; sphenoidal sinuses lie within it sphenoid body
sella turcica & hypophyseal fossa house pituitary gland
cleft btwn greater & lesser wings of sphenoid, establishing channel of communication btwn middle cranial fossa & orbit superior orbital fissure
deeply placed, lies btwn sphenoid & nasal bone ethmoid bone
cribriform plate, cista galli, perpendicular plate, lateral masses & nasal conchae, & ethmoid sinuses are major markings of ethmoid sinuses
triangular midline process extending superiorly from cribriform plate; dura attaches crista galli of ethmoid bone
openings in cribriform plate of ethmoid bone, transmitting approx 20 bundles of nerve fibers that collectively constitute olfactory nerve (CN I) olfactory foramen
olfactory foramen is also known as cribriform foramina
thin plate of ethmoid bone forming part of medial wall of orbit & lateral wall for ethmoidal labyrinth orbital plate
ethmoidal air cells; evaginations of mucous membrane of middle/superior meatus of nasal cavity into ethmoidal labyrinth, forming multiple small paranasal sinuses; subdivided into anterior, middle & posterior ethmoidal sinuses
thin plate of bone projecting downward from crista galli of ethmoid; it forms part of nasal septum perpendicular plate
middle thin, spongy, bony plate w/curved margins, part of ethmoidal labyrinth, projecting from lateral wall of nasal cavity & separating superior meatus from middle meatus middle nasal concha
horizontal plate from which are suspended labyrinth, on either side, & lamina perpendicularis in center; olfactory nerves pass from nasal cavities to brain cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
supports frontal lobe of brain; frontal bone, lesser wings of sphenoid, cribriform plate of ethmoid anterior cranial fossa
supports temporal lobes; greater wings of sphenoid, anterior slope petrous part of temporal bone middle cranial fossa
supports cerebellum; posterior slope of petrous bone, occipital bone posterior cranial fossa
consists of a body, rami meeting it at angles; lower jaw mandible
coronoid process, mandibular condyle, alveolar margin, mandibular foramen, mental foramen major markings of mandible
synovial articulation btwn head of mandible & mandibular fossa & articular tubercle of temporal bone; fibrocartilaginous articular disc divides joint into 2 cavities temporomandibular joint
smooth portion of the mandibular articular fossa & eminence of temporal bone that articulates with disc of temporomandibular joint mandibular fossa of temporal bone
triangular anterior process of mandibular ramus, giving attachment to temporal muscle coronoid process of the mandible
opening into the mandibular canal on medial surface of ramus of mandible giving passage to inferior alveolar nerve, artery, & vein mandibular foramen
projecting ridge on inferior surface of body of maxilla that contains tooth sockets alveolar margin of maxilla
anterior opening of mandibular canal on body of mandible lateral to & above mental tubercle; gives passage to mental artery & nerve mental foramen
heavy, U-shaped, horizontal portion of mandible extending posteriorly to angle where it is continuous with ramus; it supports lower teeth body of mandible
formed by lower margin of body & posterior margin of ramus of mandible mandibular angle
upturned perpendicular extremity of mandible on either side; it gives attachment on its lateral surface to masseter muscle ramus of mandible
articular process of the ramus of mandible; it includes head & neck of mandible, & pterygoid fovea mandibular condyle
deep notch btwn condylar & coronoid processes of mandible mandibular notch
medially fused bones that make up upper jaw maxillary bones
palatine process, frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar margin, & maxillary sinuses are major markings of maxillary bones
medially directed shelves from maxillae that, w/horizontal plate of palatine bone; form bony palate palatine process of maxilla
upward extension from body of maxilla, which articulates w/frontal bone frontal process of maxilla
rough projection from maxilla that articulates w/zygomatic bone zygomatic process of maxilla
superior aspect of body of mandible, containing tooth sockets of lower jaw alveolar margin of mandible
largest of paranasal sinuses occupying body of maxilla; communicates w/middle meatus of nose maxillary sinuses
paired air-filled cavities in bones of face, lined by mucous membrane continuous with that of nasal cavity paranasal sinuses
paranasal sinuses are found in 5 skull bones frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, & paired maxillary bones
smooth, triangular, slightly concave plate of bone extending posteriorly from body of maxilla to form most of floor of orbit orbital surface of maxilla
external opening of infraorbital canal, on anterior surface of body of maxilla infraorbital foramen
pointed projection at anterior extremity of intermaxillary suture anterior nasal spine
form zygomatic arch w/zygomatic process of temporal bone & form inferolateral margins of orbits zygomatic bones
zygomatic bones are also known as cheek bones
form bridge of nose nasal bones
form part of medial walls of orbit, contain the lacrimal fossa that houses the lacrimal sac lacrimal bones
irregularly rectangular thin plate, forming part of medial wall of orbit posterior to frontal process of maxilla lacrimal bone
lacrimal bone is __ for inferior nasal concha, ethmoid, frontal, & maxillary bones articulation
bone of extremely irregular form on each side of skull; situated in posterior part of nasal cavity btwn maxilla & pterygoid process of sphenoid bone; contains horizontal & vertical (perpendicular) plates palatine bone
__ bone articulates w/maxilla, inferior nasal concha, sphenoid, & ethmoid bones, the vomer & its fellow of the opposite side palatine
joins bone of opposite side & forms back part of hard palate horizontal plate
extended into 3 processes; helps to form floor of orbit, outer wall of nasal cavity, & several adjoining part; extends vertically upward from horizontal lamina perpendicular plate
forms part of nasal septum vomer
form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity inferior nasal conchae
thin, rectangular; formed by orbital plate of ethmoid, lacrimal, frontal, & small part of sphenoid bones; fossa for lacrimal sac lies at its anterior limit medial wall of orbit
triangular wall of orbit formed by zygomatic bone, greater wing of sphenoid bone, & small part of frontal bone; posteriorly it is bounded by superior & inferior orbital fissures lateral wall of orbit
shortest of 4 walls of orbit, sloping upward from orbital margin; it is composed of maxilla & orbital process of palatine bone floor of orbit
formed by orbital plate of frontal bone & lesser wing of sphenoid bone, optic canal opens at its posterior limit; an indentation, fossa for lacrimal gland, is located in anterolateral part of roof roof of orbit
cavity constructed of bone & hyaline cartilage nasal
curved, relatively short, anteroposterior passage on each side of nose that occupies middle 3rd of lateral wall of a nasal superior meatus
curved anteroposterior passage in each nasal cavity; situated below middle nasal concha & extends along entire superior border of inferior nasal conch middle meatus
space extending along lateral wall of nasal cavity btwn inferior nasal concha & floor of nasal cavity inferior meatus
either of 2 air spaces lined w/mucous membrane, each of which lies w/in frontal bone, above one of orbits frontal sinus
upper of 2 thin bony processes of ethmoid bone on lateral wall of each nasal fossa that forms upper boundary of superior meatus of nose superior nasal concha
lower of 2 thin bony processes of ethmoid bone on lateral wall of each nasal fossa that separates superior & middle meatuses of nose middle nasal concha
separate curved bony plate that is largest of the 3 & separates inferior & middle meatuses of nose inferior nasal concha
superior nasal concha & middle nasal concha are part of the ethmoid bone
either of 2 bones of skull that lie in front of frontal bones & are oblong in shape, forming by their junction bridge of nose & partly covering the nasal cavity nasal bone
formed by union of processes of 2 premaxillae & projects upward btwn anterior nares anterior nasal spine
either of 2 membrane bone elements of upper jaw that lie lateral to premaxillae & bear most of teeth maxillary bone
either of 2 irregular cavities in body of sphenoid bone that communicate w/nasal cavities sphenoid sinus
long process extending downward from junction of body & greater wing of sphenoid bone on either side pterygoid process of sphenoid bone
depression in middle line of upper surface of sphenoid bone in which pituitary gland is lodged sella turcica
air enters from nasal cavity & mucus drains into nasal cavity from sinuses in paranasal sinuses
lighten skull & humidify inspired air function of paranasal sinuses
U-shaped bone/complex of bones that is situated btwn base of tongue & larynx; supports tongue, larynx, & their muscles hyoid bone
hyoid bone is only bone in body that does not articulate directly w/another bone
hyoid bone lies just inferior to mandible in anterior neck
larger & more lateral of 2 processes on either side of hyoid bone greater horn
shorter & more medial of 2 processes on either side of hyoid bone lesser horn
part of hyoid bone, from which greater & lesser horns extend body of hyoid bone
body;s most complex bony structure; formed by cranial & facial bones (total of 22) skull
bony protective encasement of brain & organs of hearing & equilibrium cranium
immovable fibrous joint suture
the one exception that all bones of skull are united by sutures mandible
cranium divided into __ & __ vault; base
forms superior, lateral & posterior aspects of skull as well as forehead cranial vault
cranial vault also called calvaria
forms skull's inferior aspect cranial base
internally prominent bony ridges that divide cranial base into anterior, middle, & posterior fossae
brain is said to occupy cranial cavity
brain sits snug in cranial fossae
because __ __ of cranium is curved, it is self-bracing superior aspect
thickened superior margins of orbits that lie under eyebrows supraorbital margin
notch/foramen in bony border of upper inner part of orbit serving for passage of supraorbital nerve, artery, & vein supraorbital notch
smooth prominence btwn eyebrows glabella
line of union of frontal & of 2 nasal bones frontonasal suture
occipital bone joins w/sphenoid bone in cranial floor via its __ __, which bears midline projection called pharyngeal tubercle basilar region
hidden medially & superiorly to each occipital condyle; cranial nerve XII passes hypoglossal canal
sheetlike elastic ligament that connects vertebrae of neck to skull ligamentum nuchae
deep; contributes to cranial base; looks like miniature mountain ridge btwn occipital bone posteriorly & sphenoid anteriorly petrous part of temporal bone
Created by: lfrancois



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