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Chap. 1

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Levels of Structural Organization   cell - tissue - organ - organ system - organism  
Integumentary System - Organs   Cutaneous Membranes (Epidermis, Dermis), Hair Follicles (Hair, Sebaceous Glands), Sweat Glands, Nails, Sensory Receptors, Subcutaneous Layer  
Cutaneous Membranes - Function   Cover surface, protect deeper tissue, nourish epidermis, provide strength, contains glands  
Hair Follicles - Function   Produce hair, provide some protection from head, Secrete lipid that lubricates hair shaft and epidermis  
Sweat Glands - Function   Perspiration for evaporative cooling  
Nails - Function   Protect & stiffen distal tips of digits  
Sensory Receptors - Function   Provide sensations of touch, pressure, temp, pain  
Subcutaneous Layer   Store lipids, attaches skin to deeper tissues  
Skeletal System - Organs   Bones, Cartilage, Joints, Bone Marrow  
Bones, Cartilage, Bone Marrow - Function   Support, protect soft tissues, bone stores minerals, primary site of blood cell production (red marrow), storage of energy reserves in fat cell (yellow marrow)  
Muscular System - Organs   Skeletal Muscles, Tendons, Aponeuroses  
Skeletal Muscles - Function   Provide movement, control entrances to digestive & respiratory systems, exits from digestive & urinary tracts, support skeleton, protect soft tissue  
Tendons, Aponeuroses - Function   Harness forces of contraction to perform specific tasks  
Nervous System - Organs   CNS (brain, spinal cord, special senses), PNS (peripheral nervous system); fast acting control system  
CNS - Function   Controls nervous system, process info, provide short term control over activities of other systems  
PNS - Function   Links CNS with other systems and with sense organs  
Endocrine System - Organs   Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Gland, Thymus, Adrenal Glands, Kidneys, Pancreas, Gonads (testes & overies)  
Endocrine System - Function   Slow acting control using hormones  
Cardiovascular System - Organs   Heart, Blood Vessels (Arteries, Capillaries, Veins), Blood  
Cardiovascular System - Function   Maintain BP, move blood, transport O2, CO2, Blood cells... to cells, temp regulation, permit diffusion, defense against disease  
Lymphatic System - Organs   Lymphatic Vessels, Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Thymus  
Lymphatic System - Function   Carry, moniter lymph, stimulate immune response, moniter circulating blood, engulf pathogens - recycle RBCs, controls development of T cells  
Respiratory System - Organs   Nasal Cavities, Paranasal Sinuses, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs (avioli)  
Respiratory System - Function   Exchange O2 & CO2, activate vitamin D  
Digestive System - Organs   Mouth, Salivary Glands, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Large Intestine  
Digestive System - Function   Digest food, absorb nutrients, remove waste  
Urinary System - Organs   Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Urethra  
Urinary Sytem - Function   filter blood, control BP, remove waste, control RBC production, control fluid levels, control pH, activate vitamin D  
Male Reproductive System - Organs   Testes, Accessory Organs (epididymis, ductius defferns, seminal vessicles, prostate gland, urethra), Penis, Scrotum  
Female Reproductive System - Organs   Ovaries, Uterine Tubes, Uterus, Vagina, Clitoris, Labia, Mammary Glands  
Cranium   Skull or Cranial  
Facies   Face or Facial  
Cephalon   Head, Cephalic - includes cranium & facies  
Oris   mouth, oral  
Mentis   chin or mental  
Axilla   armpit, axillary  
Brachium   arm, brachial  
Antecubitis   front of elbow  
Antebrachium   forearm  
Carpus   wrist  
Pollex   thumb  
Phalanges   fingers, digital  
Patella   kneecap  
Crus, Crural   leg  
Tarsus, Tarsal   ankle  
Phalanges, Phalangeal   toes  
Hallux   great toe  
Frons, Frontal   forehead  
Oculus, Orbital or Ocular   eye  
Auris, Otic   ear  
Bucca, Buccal   cheek  
Nasus   nose  
Cervicis, Cervical   neck  
Thoacis, Thorax, Thoracic   Chest  
Mamma, Mammory   breast  
Umbilicus   navel  
Pelvis   Pelvic  
Manus, Manual   Hand  
Inguen, Inguinal   Groin  
Pubis   Pubic  
Femur, Femoral   Thigh  
Pes, Pedal   Foot  
Truck   Thoracis, Mamma, Abdomen, Umbilicus, Pelvis  
Acromial   Shoulder  
Dorsum, Dorsal   Back  
Olecranon, Olecranal   back of elbow  
Lumbus, Lumbar   Low back  
Gluteus, Gluteal   Buttock  
Popliteus   back of knee  
Sura, Sural   Calf  
Calcaneus   heel of foot  
Planta, Plantar   sole of foot  
Cephalon, Cephalic   head  
Homeostasis   Internal environment has normal, healthy conditions = good health  
Negative Feedback   Decrease production - most body systems  
Positive Feedback   Increase production - ex. blood clotting and childbirth  
Anterior   Front  
Ventral   Belly side = anterior  
Posterior   The back, behind  
Dorsal   The back = posterior  
Cranial   Toward the head  
Cephalic   Toward the head  
Superior   Above; at a higher level; toward the head  
Caudal   Toward the tail (coccyx)  
Inferior   Below; at the lower level; toward the feel  
Medial   Toward the midline  
Lateral   Away from the midline  
Proximal   Toward the attached base  
Distal   Away from an attached base  
Superficial   At, near, or relatively close to the body surface  
Deep   Toward the interior of the body; farther from the surface  
Transverse, Horizontal, Cross Sectional   Separates into superior and inferior portions ie. MRI, CT Scans  
Sagittal   Right and Left portions  
Midsagittal   Separate into EQUAL right and left portions  
Parasagittal   UNEQUAL right and left portions  
Frontal, Coronal   Separate anterior and posterior portions of the body. Generally pass through the skull  
Dorsal (Posterior) Cavity   Protects Nervous System. Contains CRANIAL CAVITY (contains brain) and VERTEBRAL CAVITY (contains spinal cord)  
Ventral Cavity   Contains Thorasic, abdominal and pelvic cavity. The diaphram separates the thorasic cavity from the abdominal cavity  
Viscera   Organ in the ventral cavity  
Thorasic Cavity Organs   heart & lung  
Abdominal Cavity Organs   digestive viscera  
Pelvic Cavity Organs   bladder, reproductive organs, rectum  
Inferior Mediastium   Heart  
Superior Mediastium   Aortic artery, vessels, thymus, esphogus, trachea  
Abdominal Pelvic Cavity (4 Regions)   Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ), Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ), Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ), Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) - Divide RT/LT at Sterum, Superior/Inferior at Umbilicus  
Abdominopelvic Regions (9 Regions)   Divide RT Clavical, LT Clavical, Sup/Inf: Under Rib Cage & at Umbilicus - RT hypochondriac, epigastric, LT hypochondriac/RT lumbar, umbilical, LT lumbar/RT inguinal or iliac, hypogastric, LT inguinal or iliac  
Fascia   Sheath or membrane  
Superficial Fascia   Subcutaneous layer = hypodermis, mostly fat  
Deep Fascia   The tough capsule that SURROUNDS most organs, incl. kidneys, tendons, ligaments, periosteum (around bone), pericardium, connective sheath around muscles  
Subserous Fascia   Between serous membrane & deep fascia  
Aponeurosis   Flat, sheet-like fascia (flat & thin tendon), may connect muscle to muscle or muscle to bone  


   


 
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