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Chap. 1

Levels of Structural Organization cell - tissue - organ - organ system - organism
Integumentary System - Organs Cutaneous Membranes (Epidermis, Dermis), Hair Follicles (Hair, Sebaceous Glands), Sweat Glands, Nails, Sensory Receptors, Subcutaneous Layer
Cutaneous Membranes - Function Cover surface, protect deeper tissue, nourish epidermis, provide strength, contains glands
Hair Follicles - Function Produce hair, provide some protection from head, Secrete lipid that lubricates hair shaft and epidermis
Sweat Glands - Function Perspiration for evaporative cooling
Nails - Function Protect & stiffen distal tips of digits
Sensory Receptors - Function Provide sensations of touch, pressure, temp, pain
Subcutaneous Layer Store lipids, attaches skin to deeper tissues
Skeletal System - Organs Bones, Cartilage, Joints, Bone Marrow
Bones, Cartilage, Bone Marrow - Function Support, protect soft tissues, bone stores minerals, primary site of blood cell production (red marrow), storage of energy reserves in fat cell (yellow marrow)
Muscular System - Organs Skeletal Muscles, Tendons, Aponeuroses
Skeletal Muscles - Function Provide movement, control entrances to digestive & respiratory systems, exits from digestive & urinary tracts, support skeleton, protect soft tissue
Tendons, Aponeuroses - Function Harness forces of contraction to perform specific tasks
Nervous System - Organs CNS (brain, spinal cord, special senses), PNS (peripheral nervous system); fast acting control system
CNS - Function Controls nervous system, process info, provide short term control over activities of other systems
PNS - Function Links CNS with other systems and with sense organs
Endocrine System - Organs Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Gland, Thymus, Adrenal Glands, Kidneys, Pancreas, Gonads (testes & overies)
Endocrine System - Function Slow acting control using hormones
Cardiovascular System - Organs Heart, Blood Vessels (Arteries, Capillaries, Veins), Blood
Cardiovascular System - Function Maintain BP, move blood, transport O2, CO2, Blood cells... to cells, temp regulation, permit diffusion, defense against disease
Lymphatic System - Organs Lymphatic Vessels, Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Thymus
Lymphatic System - Function Carry, moniter lymph, stimulate immune response, moniter circulating blood, engulf pathogens - recycle RBCs, controls development of T cells
Respiratory System - Organs Nasal Cavities, Paranasal Sinuses, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs (avioli)
Respiratory System - Function Exchange O2 & CO2, activate vitamin D
Digestive System - Organs Mouth, Salivary Glands, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Large Intestine
Digestive System - Function Digest food, absorb nutrients, remove waste
Urinary System - Organs Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Urethra
Urinary Sytem - Function filter blood, control BP, remove waste, control RBC production, control fluid levels, control pH, activate vitamin D
Male Reproductive System - Organs Testes, Accessory Organs (epididymis, ductius defferns, seminal vessicles, prostate gland, urethra), Penis, Scrotum
Female Reproductive System - Organs Ovaries, Uterine Tubes, Uterus, Vagina, Clitoris, Labia, Mammary Glands
Cranium Skull or Cranial
Facies Face or Facial
Cephalon Head, Cephalic - includes cranium & facies
Oris mouth, oral
Mentis chin or mental
Axilla armpit, axillary
Brachium arm, brachial
Antecubitis front of elbow
Antebrachium forearm
Carpus wrist
Pollex thumb
Phalanges fingers, digital
Patella kneecap
Crus, Crural leg
Tarsus, Tarsal ankle
Phalanges, Phalangeal toes
Hallux great toe
Frons, Frontal forehead
Oculus, Orbital or Ocular eye
Auris, Otic ear
Bucca, Buccal cheek
Nasus nose
Cervicis, Cervical neck
Thoacis, Thorax, Thoracic Chest
Mamma, Mammory breast
Umbilicus navel
Pelvis Pelvic
Manus, Manual Hand
Inguen, Inguinal Groin
Pubis Pubic
Femur, Femoral Thigh
Pes, Pedal Foot
Truck Thoracis, Mamma, Abdomen, Umbilicus, Pelvis
Acromial Shoulder
Dorsum, Dorsal Back
Olecranon, Olecranal back of elbow
Lumbus, Lumbar Low back
Gluteus, Gluteal Buttock
Popliteus back of knee
Sura, Sural Calf
Calcaneus heel of foot
Planta, Plantar sole of foot
Cephalon, Cephalic head
Homeostasis Internal environment has normal, healthy conditions = good health
Negative Feedback Decrease production - most body systems
Positive Feedback Increase production - ex. blood clotting and childbirth
Anterior Front
Ventral Belly side = anterior
Posterior The back, behind
Dorsal The back = posterior
Cranial Toward the head
Cephalic Toward the head
Superior Above; at a higher level; toward the head
Caudal Toward the tail (coccyx)
Inferior Below; at the lower level; toward the feel
Medial Toward the midline
Lateral Away from the midline
Proximal Toward the attached base
Distal Away from an attached base
Superficial At, near, or relatively close to the body surface
Deep Toward the interior of the body; farther from the surface
Transverse, Horizontal, Cross Sectional Separates into superior and inferior portions ie. MRI, CT Scans
Sagittal Right and Left portions
Midsagittal Separate into EQUAL right and left portions
Parasagittal UNEQUAL right and left portions
Frontal, Coronal Separate anterior and posterior portions of the body. Generally pass through the skull
Dorsal (Posterior) Cavity Protects Nervous System. Contains CRANIAL CAVITY (contains brain) and VERTEBRAL CAVITY (contains spinal cord)
Ventral Cavity Contains Thorasic, abdominal and pelvic cavity. The diaphram separates the thorasic cavity from the abdominal cavity
Viscera Organ in the ventral cavity
Thorasic Cavity Organs heart & lung
Abdominal Cavity Organs digestive viscera
Pelvic Cavity Organs bladder, reproductive organs, rectum
Inferior Mediastium Heart
Superior Mediastium Aortic artery, vessels, thymus, esphogus, trachea
Abdominal Pelvic Cavity (4 Regions) Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ), Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ), Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ), Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) - Divide RT/LT at Sterum, Superior/Inferior at Umbilicus
Abdominopelvic Regions (9 Regions) Divide RT Clavical, LT Clavical, Sup/Inf: Under Rib Cage & at Umbilicus - RT hypochondriac, epigastric, LT hypochondriac/RT lumbar, umbilical, LT lumbar/RT inguinal or iliac, hypogastric, LT inguinal or iliac
Fascia Sheath or membrane
Superficial Fascia Subcutaneous layer = hypodermis, mostly fat
Deep Fascia The tough capsule that SURROUNDS most organs, incl. kidneys, tendons, ligaments, periosteum (around bone), pericardium, connective sheath around muscles
Subserous Fascia Between serous membrane & deep fascia
Aponeurosis Flat, sheet-like fascia (flat & thin tendon), may connect muscle to muscle or muscle to bone
Created by: jap