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Southeastern Institute - Digestive System

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Functions of the Digestive System   Ingestion, digestion, absorption& defecation  
Ingestion   Orally taking in food & drink  
Digestion   Mechanical & chemical process of mixing food with enzymes and converting it to an absorbable state  
Absorption   Products of digestion move to blood then to the cells  
Defecation   Eliminating indigestible or unabsorbed material form the body  
Alimentary Canal   Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract, Mostly coiled passageway that goes from mouth to anus, Includes oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine  
Tunics   Layers of the GI tract that produce and secrete enzymes  
What kind of muscle is mostly found in the digestive system?   Smooth muscle  
Tonic contraction   Sustained contraction in sphincter muscles  
Sphincter   A ring of muscle fibers that regulate movement of materials from one compartment to another  
Peristalsis   Rhythmic muscle contraction that occurs behind bolus (partially digested food)  
Peritoneum   Envelopes entire abdominal wall, Largest serous membrane in body, Allows digestive & visceral organs to slide easily against abdominal wall without friction, Includes mesenteries, parietal & visceral peritoneum, and greater & lesser omentum  
Mesenteries   Fatty apron, Fan shaped peritoneum that connects all divisions of small intestines  
Oral Cavity   Mouth, Port of entry for food & drink,Tongue, teeth, gums & salivary duct openings, Where digestion begins  
Mastication   Chewing  
Gustatory Organs   Taste buds, Chemoreceptors  
Deglutition   Swallowing  
Saliva   Initiates digestion of starches & fatsPharynx  
Esophagus   Gullet, Muscular tube that connects pharynx to stomach, lining secretes mucus to help transport food  
Stomach   J-shaped organ, enlargement of GI tract bound by sphincters  
Cardioesophageal sphincter   Sphincter between esophagus and stomach  
Pyloric sphincter   Sphincter between stomach and small intestine  
Rugae   Folds in stomach’s lining to allow for expansion  
Bolus   Partially digested food  
Chyme   What bolus becomes after being processed in the stomach  
G cells   Endocrine cells that secrete hormone gastrin  
Parietal cells   Exocrine, Required to absorb B12 and produces hydrochloric acid  
Chief cells   Pepsinogin for protein digestion and protects gastric lining  
Small Intestine   Responsible for 90% of all absorption. longest section of alimentary canal  
Ileocecal sphincter   Sphincter that connects small intestine to large intestine  
Villi   Fingerlike projections that house blood & lymph capillaries  
Microvilli   “brush border”, contains Lacteals which are lymphatic capillaries located in a villus  
Duodenum   First section of small intestine  
Sphincter of Oddi   Sphincter found in the duodenum that regulates secretions of pancreas, liver & gallbladder  
Jejunum   Intermediate portion of the small intestine, Absorption of water  
Ileum   Last portion of small intestine, fat absorption  
Large Intestine   Colon, makes mucus  
Flexures   Curves in the colon  
Cecum   First section of the colon  
Ileocecal Sphincter   Sphincter between small and large intestine  
Vermiform Appendix   Suspended inferiorly from the cecum  
Ascending Colon   Part of colon between cecum and Hepatic flexure  
Hepatic flexure   Between ascending and transverse colon  
Transverse Colon   Between hepatic and splenic flexures  
Splenic flexure   Flexure between transverse & descending colon  
Descending Colon   Between splenic flexure and sigmoid colon  
Sigmoid Colon   Between descending colon and rectum  
Rectum   Connects colon to anus and is used for storage  
Liver   Largest internal organ, more than 500 functions, makes bile, stores vitamins A, D, E, & K and minerals, Detoxes toxic substances and those that can’t be broken down are stored  
Gallbladder   Stores and concentrates bile manufactured by the liver  
Pancreas   Inferior & posterior to the stomach, produces (or secretes) digestive enzymes, break down proteins, carbs & fats, Most important digestive gland  
Proteins   Organic compounds that contain large combinations of amino acids, 8 essential amino acids  
Carbohydrates   Body’s preferred source of energy, Mediated by insulin, Starches and sugars,Required for metabolism of other nutrients  
Fats   Lipids or fatty acids, Can be solid or liquid  
Saturated Fat   Bad fats, Solid at room temperature, Lard, processed oils  
Unsaturated Fat   Good fats, Olive, peanut, flaxseed, sesame oils, Liquid at room temperature  
Vitamins   Organic compounds essential for normal physiological & metabolic functioning  
Fat soluble vitamins   Stored in body, A, D, E, K  
Water soluble vitamins   Not stored in bodyMust be ingested regularly, B & C  
Minerals   Essential non-organic compounds,Only need trace amounts,Vital in regulating many bodily functions, Referred to as metal, nonmetal, radical, or phosphate rather than compound name  
Water   Every part of the body needs this nutrient, Except for skin it surrounds every cell, All nutrients & wastes travel through ______-based fluids  


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