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Southeasten Digestiv

Southeastern Institute - Digestive System

Functions of the Digestive System Ingestion, digestion, absorption& defecation
Ingestion Orally taking in food & drink
Digestion Mechanical & chemical process of mixing food with enzymes and converting it to an absorbable state
Absorption Products of digestion move to blood then to the cells
Defecation Eliminating indigestible or unabsorbed material form the body
Alimentary Canal Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract, Mostly coiled passageway that goes from mouth to anus, Includes oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
Tunics Layers of the GI tract that produce and secrete enzymes
What kind of muscle is mostly found in the digestive system? Smooth muscle
Tonic contraction Sustained contraction in sphincter muscles
Sphincter A ring of muscle fibers that regulate movement of materials from one compartment to another
Peristalsis Rhythmic muscle contraction that occurs behind bolus (partially digested food)
Peritoneum Envelopes entire abdominal wall, Largest serous membrane in body, Allows digestive & visceral organs to slide easily against abdominal wall without friction, Includes mesenteries, parietal & visceral peritoneum, and greater & lesser omentum
Mesenteries Fatty apron, Fan shaped peritoneum that connects all divisions of small intestines
Oral Cavity Mouth, Port of entry for food & drink,Tongue, teeth, gums & salivary duct openings, Where digestion begins
Mastication Chewing
Gustatory Organs Taste buds, Chemoreceptors
Deglutition Swallowing
Saliva Initiates digestion of starches & fatsPharynx
Esophagus Gullet, Muscular tube that connects pharynx to stomach, lining secretes mucus to help transport food
Stomach J-shaped organ, enlargement of GI tract bound by sphincters
Cardioesophageal sphincter Sphincter between esophagus and stomach
Pyloric sphincter Sphincter between stomach and small intestine
Rugae Folds in stomach’s lining to allow for expansion
Bolus Partially digested food
Chyme What bolus becomes after being processed in the stomach
G cells Endocrine cells that secrete hormone gastrin
Parietal cells Exocrine, Required to absorb B12 and produces hydrochloric acid
Chief cells Pepsinogin for protein digestion and protects gastric lining
Small Intestine Responsible for 90% of all absorption. longest section of alimentary canal
Ileocecal sphincter Sphincter that connects small intestine to large intestine
Villi Fingerlike projections that house blood & lymph capillaries
Microvilli “brush border”, contains Lacteals which are lymphatic capillaries located in a villus
Duodenum First section of small intestine
Sphincter of Oddi Sphincter found in the duodenum that regulates secretions of pancreas, liver & gallbladder
Jejunum Intermediate portion of the small intestine, Absorption of water
Ileum Last portion of small intestine, fat absorption
Large Intestine Colon, makes mucus
Flexures Curves in the colon
Cecum First section of the colon
Ileocecal Sphincter Sphincter between small and large intestine
Vermiform Appendix Suspended inferiorly from the cecum
Ascending Colon Part of colon between cecum and Hepatic flexure
Hepatic flexure Between ascending and transverse colon
Transverse Colon Between hepatic and splenic flexures
Splenic flexure Flexure between transverse & descending colon
Descending Colon Between splenic flexure and sigmoid colon
Sigmoid Colon Between descending colon and rectum
Rectum Connects colon to anus and is used for storage
Liver Largest internal organ, more than 500 functions, makes bile, stores vitamins A, D, E, & K and minerals, Detoxes toxic substances and those that can’t be broken down are stored
Gallbladder Stores and concentrates bile manufactured by the liver
Pancreas Inferior & posterior to the stomach, produces (or secretes) digestive enzymes, break down proteins, carbs & fats, Most important digestive gland
Proteins Organic compounds that contain large combinations of amino acids, 8 essential amino acids
Carbohydrates Body’s preferred source of energy, Mediated by insulin, Starches and sugars,Required for metabolism of other nutrients
Fats Lipids or fatty acids, Can be solid or liquid
Saturated Fat Bad fats, Solid at room temperature, Lard, processed oils
Unsaturated Fat Good fats, Olive, peanut, flaxseed, sesame oils, Liquid at room temperature
Vitamins Organic compounds essential for normal physiological & metabolic functioning
Fat soluble vitamins Stored in body, A, D, E, K
Water soluble vitamins Not stored in bodyMust be ingested regularly, B & C
Minerals Essential non-organic compounds,Only need trace amounts,Vital in regulating many bodily functions, Referred to as metal, nonmetal, radical, or phosphate rather than compound name
Water Every part of the body needs this nutrient, Except for skin it surrounds every cell, All nutrients & wastes travel through ______-based fluids
Created by: cmcracken