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Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

drugs that alter the bacteria cell wall   fosfomycin, cycloserine, vancomycin, bacitracin, B lactams  
how does fosfomycin work   binds covalently to muramic acid synthesizing enzyme to inhibit synthesis of Muramic  
how are bacteria developing fosfomycin resistance   decreased uptake  
how does cycloserine work?   inhibits synthesis of D-ala D-ala  
how are bacteria becoming resistant to cycloserine   decreased uptake  
how does vancomycin work   binds D-ala D-ala and prevents transglycosylation  
how are bacteria becoming resistant to vancomycin   they alter D-ala D-ala to make it D-ala-D lactate  
who is especially resitant to vancomycin   enterococcus  
how does bacitracin work   blocks dephosphyorylation of lipid carriers  
what does bacitracin and vancomycin work against   Gram +  
how does b lactams work   inhibits PBP which carry out crosslinking, it inhibits transpeptidation  
are B-lactams bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic   cidal  
what does the b lactam ring mimic   the D-ala D-ala of the peptidoglycan precursor  
how do b lactams differ   different side chains same nucleus  
who are two b-lactamase inhibitors   clavulanic acid and sulbactam  
What drugs work on cell membrane   polymyxin  
how does polymyxin work   cationic detergent that binds LPS  
how is polymyxin applied   topical kills even non-dividing gram neg bacteria  
what drugs work on the DNA structure   nitrofuantoin adn metronidazole  
how do drugs that work on the DNA structure function   the nitro group is reduced by a nitroreductase and makes a reactive species that cleaves DNA  
nitrofurantoin and metroniadazole are only effective against?   anaerobes  
what drugs alter DNA synthesis   quinolones, fluoroquinolones  
how do drugs that alter DNA synthesis work?   inhibits DNA gyrase, topoisomerase II blocks DNA supercoiling  
how are bacteria resistant to quinolones   alter target  
what drugs alter RNA synthesis   Rifamycins  
how does rifamycin work   blocks RNA polmerase  
how does resistance to rifamycin work   alter B subunit of RNA polymerase  
drugs that alter protein synthesis are static or cidal   static  
what drugs affect the 50S ribosomal unit   chloramphenicol, macrolides (azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin), lincosamides  
how do choramphenicols work   bind reversibly to exit tunnel of 50s  
how do the macrolides work (erythro, azithro, clarithro)   block translocation and elongation  
how does resistance develope to macrolides   alter target  
how do lincosamides work   binds 50S and blocks peptide bond formation  
how does tetracyclin work   stops tRNA from binding  
who should not get tetracyclin   pregnant women and children (bone seeking)  
how have bacteria become resistant to tetracyclin   decreased uptake increased efflux  
how do aminoglycosides work   bind irreversibly to 30S  
what is special about aminoglycosides   they are bacteriocidal  
when are aminoglycosides useful   anerobic conditions  
how are bacteria becoming resistant to aminoglycosides   alter target, inactivate the drug, decrease uptake  
how does bactrim work   inhibits thymine synth via blockage of dihydropteroate synthetase  
is bactrim static or cidal   static  
how has resistance developed to bactrim   alter target, decrease uptake, increase level of target enzymes  
how does trimethoprim work   inhibits thymine synth  
how are bacteria becoming resistant to trimethoprim   increase level of targer or alter target  
what does isoniazid do   inhibits mycolic acid synthesis  
when is mycolic acid important   M. Tb  
prblem with isoniazid   hepatotoxic  


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Created by: jmuame03