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physiology, anatomy, diseases

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consists of right and left lungs and air passage ways that connect the lungs to the outside of the body   respiratory system  
in the head and neck. includes the nose nasal cavity and pharynx   upper respiratory system  
includes the larynx and trachea. in the neck, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli in the lungs   lower respiratory system  
to bring oxygen in the body and expel carbon dioxide (waste)   purpose of the respiratory system  
pertaining to   -atory  
contains the nasal cavity   nose  
a wall of cartilage and bone   nasal septum  
one side of the cavity are 3 long bony projections   superior, middle and inferior  
lined with mucosa   nasal cavity  
warms and humidifies the air and produces mucus   mucus membranes  
dividing wall; septum   sept/o-  
scroll like structure; turbinate   turbin/o-  
mucous membrane   mucos/o-  
mucus   muc/o-  
posteriorly the nasal cavities merges with the   pharynx  
the area of the throat that is posterior to the nasal cavity   nasopharynx  
the area of the throat that is posterior to the oral cavity   oropharynx  
posterior to the larynx   laryngopharynx  
inferior end divides into 2 parts   larynx  
leads to the trachea   larynx  
leads to the stomach   esophagus  
a lid like structure seals off the opening so that swallowed food goes into the esophagus   epiglottis  
below the vocal cords the larynx merges into the   trachea  
flexible and can flatten   trachea  
or/o-   mouth  
glott/o-   glottis of the larynx  
the central opening n the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles through which air passes   lumen  
refers to the bronchi and the lungs   bronchopulmonary  
small hairs in the nose   cilia  
spongy air filled structures   lungs  
large divisions whose dividing lines are visible on the outer surface of the lung   lobes  
is larger and has how many lobes   right and 3  
the 3 lobes of the right lung   upper, middle, lower  
has only 2 lobes   left lung  
the 2 lobes of the left lung are called   upper and lower  
the rounded top of each lung   apex  
an indentation on the medial surface of the lung   hilum  
a hollow sphere of cells that expands and contracts with each breath   alveolus  
the funtional part of the lungs   parenchyma  
a protein fat compound that reduces surface tension   surfactant  
bony cage that consists of the sternum   thorax  
irregulary shaped area that contains the trachea   mediastinum  
sheet of skeletal muscle, lie along the inferior border   diaphragm  
double layered serous membrane   pleura  
the layer next to the lungs surfaace   visceral pleura  
the layer next to the wall of the thoracic cavity   parietal pleura  
slippery, watery fluid that allows the 2 layers to the side smoothly pass each other   pleural fluid  
consists of breathing in and out   respirations  
the brain regulate the depth and rate of repiration   respiratory control centers  
having normal depth and rate of repirations   eupnea  
movement of air in and out the lungs   ventilation  
movement of oxygen from inhaled air into the alveoli and then into the blood   external respiration  
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxidde in the blood   gas transport  
movement of oxygen from the blood into the cells   internal respirations  
oxygen is used by the cell to produce energy in the process of metabolism   cellular respiration  
large internal organs   viscer/o-  
wall of a cavity   pariet/o-  
lung membrane   pleur/o-  
pector/o- steth/o-   chest  
capn/o-   carbon dioxide  
pne/o-   breathing  
hal/o-   breath  
metabol/o-   change; tranformation  
ox/y-   oxygen  
gen/o-   arising from; produced by  
glob/o-   comprehensive; shaped like a globe  
ventil/o-   movement of air  
cellul/o-   cell  
infect/o-   disease within  
ectasis   condition of dilation  
atel/o-   incomplete  
chron/o-   time  
obstruct/o-   blocked by a barrier  
em-   in  
phys/o-   distend; grow; inflate  
-ema   condition  
abbreviation for upper respiratory infection   URI  
bacterial or viral infection of the nose and or throat.   upper respiratory infection  
hyper reactivity of the bronchi and bronchioles with bronchospasm.   asthma  
prolonged extremely severe life threatening asthma attack   status asthmacticus  
acute or chronic inflammation or infection of the bronchi   bronchitis  
chronic permanent enlargement and loss of elasticity   bronchiectasis  
normal ispiration sounds like a soft wind rushing through a tunnel   abnormal breath sounds  
a severe infection, extensive burns, or injury to the lungs   adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)  
incomplete expansion or collapse of part or all of a drug that blocks the bronchus   atelectasis  
combo of chronic bronchitis and emphysema   chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  
hereditary, eventually fatal disease caused by a recessive gene   cystic fibrosis  
localized collection of purulent material in the thoracic cavity from an infection in the lungs   empyema  
acute viral infection of the upper and lower respiratory system   influenza  
severe sometimes fatal bacteria infection   legionnaires disease  
cancerous tumor of the lungs that is more common in smokers   lung cancer  
constant exposure to inhaled particules   occupational lung disease  
coal miners lung or black lung   anthracosis  
caused by abestos fibers   asbestosis  
infection of some or all the lobes of the lungs   pneumonia  
caused by foreign matter that is inhaled into the lungs   aspiration pnuemonia  
caused by bacteria   bacterial pnuemonia  
affects the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli in the lung   broncho pnuemonia  
in both lungs   double pnuemonia  
bladder   cyst/o-  
fiber   fibr/o-  
cancer   cancer/o-  
cancer; intentionally causing harm   malign/o-  
gland   aden/o-  
coal   anthrac/o-  
dust   coni/o-  
lobe of an organ   lob/o-  
spherical bacterium   cocc/o-  
virus   vir/o-  
embolus; occluding plug   embol/o-  
tuberculosis   tubercul/o-  
nodule   tuber/o-  
pouring out   effus/o-  
breathing   -pnea pne/o-  
chest   pector/o-  
condition of coughing up   -ptysis  
sudden sharp attack   paroxysm/o-  
straight   orth/o-  
fast   tachy  
around   circum-  
carbon dioxide   capn/o-  
condition of the blood   -emia  
sleep   somn/o-  
radiation, xray   radi/o-  
cut; layer; slice   tom/o-  
movement of air   ventil/o-  
through; throughout   per-  
listening   auscult/o-  
tapping   percuss/o-  
raise up again   resuscit/o-  
tube   tub/o-  
person who does   -ator  
cut out; remove   resect/o-  
procedure to puncture   -centesis  
cough   tuss/o-  
cortex; outer region   cortic/o-  
affects part or all or just one lobe of the lung   lobar pnuemonia  
acute caused by bacterium streptococcus   pneumococcal pnuemonia  
severe pnuemonia caused by the fungus pnuemocystis jiroveci   pneumocystis jiroveci pnuemonia  
fluid collects in the alveoli   pulmonary edema  
blockage of a pulmonary artery   pulmonary embolism  
acute viral respiratory illness that can be fatal   severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)  
lung infection caused by the bacterium mycobacterium , spread by airborne droplet and coughing   tuberculosis  
presence of blood in the thoracic cavity usually from tramua   hemothorax  
accumulation of fluid in the pleural space   pleural effusion  
inflammation or infection of the pleura due to pnuemonia trauma or a tumor   pleurisy  
large volume of air in he pleural space   pnuemothorax  
breif or prolonged absence of spontaneous respirations due to respiratory failure or arrest   -apnea  
abnormally slow rate of breathing   bradyapnea  
difficult labored painful respirations due to lung disease   dyspnea  
need to be proped up to sleep   orthopnea  
abnormally rapid rate of breathing   tachypnea  
complete lack of oxygen in the aterial blood and body tissues   anoxia  
bluish-gray discolortion of the skin   cyanosis  
very high level of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood   hypercapnia  
very low level of oxygen in the arterial blood   hypoxema  
blood test to measure partial pressure and gases and co2 in arterial blood   arterial blood gases  
blood test to measure level of carbon monoxide in the blood   carboxyhemoglobin  
to measure degree of oxygen   oximetry  
procedure to measure capacity of the lungs and the volume of air during inhale and exhale   pulmonary function test  
to breath in is called inhale and   inspiration  
to breath out is called exhale and   expiration  
to see if have sleep apnea and whats casuing it   sleep study  
test to identify which bacterium is causing a pulmonary infection   sputum culture and sensitivity  
test to detemine if paitent has been exposed to be   tuberculosis test  
radiologic procedure that uses xrays to create image of the lungs   chest radiography  
radiologic procedures that scan a narrow slice of tissue   cat, ct, mri  
nuclear medicine procedure that uses inhaled radioactive gas to show air flow in the lungs   lung scan  
uses a stethoscope to listen to breath sounds   auscultstion and percussion  
to ventilate the lungs and circulate the blood if patient has quit breathing   cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)  
an endotracheal tube is inserted   endotracheal intubation  
medical device to encourage patients to breatj deeply to prevent atelectasis   incentive spirometry  
procedure to provide additional oxygen to patients with pulmonary disease   oxygen therapy  
procedure that uses a lighted bronchoscope inserted through the mouth and larynx to examine the trachea and bronchi   bronchoscopy  
insert a plastic tube between the ribs and into the thoracic cavity to remove accumulated air, fluid , pus or blood   chest tube insertion  
procedure to remove part or all of a lung   lung resection  
uses a needle and a vaccum container to remove pleural fluid frm the pleural space   thoracentesis  
incision into the thoracic cavity   thoracotomy  
begins with an incision into the trachea to create an opening   tracheostomy  
treats respiratory infections caused by bacteria. not useful against viral   antibiotic drugs  
treat tuberculosis   antitubercular drugs  
supress the cough center in the brain used to treat chronic bronchitis and nonproductive coughs some contain narcotics   antitussive drugs  
prevent and treat influenza virus   antiviral drugs  
dilate constricted airways be relaxing the smooth muscles that surround the bronchioles   bronchodilator drugs  
block the immune system from causing inflammation in the lung   corticosteroid drugs  
reduce the thickness of sputum so that it can be coughed up   expectorant drugs  
block leukotriene which causes inflammation and edema   leukotriene receptor blocker  
stabilize moast cells and prevent them from releasing histamine that causes bronchospasm during an allergic reaction   mast cell stabilizer drugs  
bind to nicotine receptors and prevent them from bring activated by nicotine from smoking   stop smoking drugs  


   


 
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