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Genitourinary

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Answer
cortex   Outer layer of an organ or body structure  
electrolytes   Mineral salts (potassium, calcium, sodium) that carry an electric charge in solution.  
EPO erythropoietin   Glycoprotein hormone produced by certain cells in the kidney.  
libido   Sexual desire or drive , either conscious or unconscious.  
meatus   An opening or passage through any part of the body.  
medulla   Inner or central portion of an organ.  
micturition   The discharge of urine; urination.  
nitrogenous wastes   Products of cellular metabolism that contain nitrogen.  
orifice   Opening, entrance or outlet of any body caviety.  
percutaneous   Procedure preformed through the skin; as in a biopsy.  
reflux   Backward or return flow of a fluid  
urea   Nitrogenous end product of protein metabolism excreted in urine and perspiration.  
cyst/o   bladder  
vesic/o   bladder  
glomerul/o   glomerulus  
lith/o   stone, calculus  
meat/o   opening, meatus  
nephr/o   kidney  
ren/o   kidney  
peritone/o   peritoneum  
pyel/o   renal pelvis  
ur/o   urine  
ureter/o   ureter  
urethr/o   urethra  
andr/o   male  
balan/o   glans penis  
epididym/o   epididymis  
orch/o,orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o   testis  
prostat/o   prostate gland  
spermat/o, sperm/o   spermatozoa, sperm cells  
vas/o   vas deferens; duct  
varic/o   dilated vein  
vesicul/o   seminal vesicle  
albumin/o   albumin, protein  
azot/o   nitrogenous compounds  
bacteri/o   bacteria  
crypt/o   hidden  
gonad/o   gonads, sex glands  
kali/o   potassium  
keton/o   ketone bodies  
noct/o   night  
olig/o   scanty  
py/o   pus  
-cide   killing  
-genesis   forming, producing, origin  
-iasis   abnormal condition- produced by something specified  
-ism   condition  
-spadias   slit, fissure  
-urea   urine  
dia-   through, across  
retro-   backward, behind  
anuria   Absence of urine production or urine output.  
azotemia   Retention of excessive amts. of nitrogenus compounds(urea,creatine,uric acid)in the blood.  
CRF chronic renal failure   Renal failure that occurs over a period of years, in which the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids w/ normal dietary intake.  
dysuria   painful or difficult urination.  
enuresis   Involuntary discharge of urine.  
fistula   Abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another.  
frequency   Voiding at frequent intervals.  
hesitancy   Involuntary delay in initiating urination.  
nephrotic syndrome   Loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin, by way of urine, due to increased permeability of the glomular membrane.  
nocturia   Excessive or frequent urination after going to bed.  
oliguria   Diminished capacity to form and pass urine so that the end products of metabloism cannot be excreted efficiently.  
urgency   Feeling the need to void immediately.  
urolithiasis   Presence of stones in any urinary structure.  
Wilms tumor   Rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidneys that usually occurs in children.  
anorchidism   Congential absence of one or both testes.  
aspermia   Failure to form or ejaculate semen.  
balanitis   Inflamation of the skin covering the glans penis.  
epispadias   Malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis.  
erectile dysfunction   Repeated inability to get or keep an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse.  
hydrocele   Accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity.  
hypospadias   Developmental anomaly in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis.  
phimosis   Stenosis of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis.  
sterility   Inability to produce offspring  
varicocele   Swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord.  
DRE Digital rectal exam   Screening test that assusses the rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormally firm areas that might indicate cancer.  
electromyography   Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra.  
TSE testicular self-exam   Self-exam of the testes for abnormal lumps or swelling in the scrotal sac.  
endoscopy   Visual exam of a caviety or canal using a lighted instrument called an endoscope.  
cystoscopy   Insertion of a cystoscope into the urethra to examin the urinary bladder, obtain biopsies, and remove polyps.  
nephroscopy   Exam of the inside of the kidneys.  
urethroscopy   Visual exam of the urethra.  
BUN blood urea nitrogen   Test thet determines the amount of urea nitrogen present in the blood.  
C&S culture and sensitivity   Test that determines the causative organism of a disease and how the organism responds to various antibiotics.  
PSA prostate specific antigen   Blood test used to detect prostatic disorders. especially prostate CA.  
semen analysis   Test that analyzes a seman sample for volume,sperm count,motility, and morphology to evaluate fertility or verify sterilization.  
UA urinalysis   Battery of tests preformed on a urine specimen, physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation.  
cystography   Radiographic exam of the urinary bladder using a contrast medium.  
cystometrography   Procedure that assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at varying stages of filling using saline and a contrast medium introduced into the bladder through a catheter.  
cystourethrography   Radiographic exam of the urinary bladder and urethra after contrast medium.  
VCUG voiding cystourethrography   cystourethrography with additional radiological exam of the bladder and urethra before,during,and after voiding.  
KUB (radiography) kidney, ureter,bladder   Radiographic exam to determine the location,size, and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic cavity.  
pyelography   Radiographic exam of the ureters and renal pelvis.  
IVP intravenous pyelography   Radiographic exam of the ureters and renal pelvis after I.V. injection of contrast medium.  
nuclear scan, renal   Test used to evaluate blood flow,structure, and function ot the kidneys after I.V. injection of a mildly radioactive substance.  
ultrasound   Test using high-frequency sound waves and displays the reflected "echoes" on a moniter.  
scrotal ultrasound   Use of ultrasound to assess patency of the vas deferens and other structers.  
dialysis   Passage of a solution through a membrane.  
hemodialysis   Removal of a toxic substance from the blood by shunting blood from the body through a semipermeable membrane tube.  
peritoneal dialysis   Removal of toxic substance from the body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with warm sterile solution.  
lithotripsy   Crushing a stone by use of surgical incision.  
ESWL extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy   Use of shockwave an a noninvasive method to break up stones.  
circumcision   Removal of all or part of the foreskin, or prepuce of the penis.  
PCNL percutaneous nephrolithotomy   Removal of a stone from the kidney through a very small incision in the skin.  
nephropexy   Fixation of a floating or mobile kidney.  
orchidectomy   Removal of one or both testes.  
resection of the prostate   Partial excision of the prostate gland.  
transurethral resection of the prostate   Procedure to remove prostatic tissue by cauterization or cryosurgery.  
vasectomy   Excision of all or a segment of the vas deferene.  
potassium supplements   Treat or prevent hypokalemia.  
androgens   Increase testosterone levels.  
anti-impotence agents   Treat ED by promoting increased blood flow.  
AGN   acute glomerulonephritis  
ARF   acute renal failure  
ATN   acute tubular necrosis  
BNO   bladder neck obstruction  
BPH   benign prostatic hypertrophy  
BUN   blood urea nitrogen  
C&S   culture and sensitivity  
cath   catheter  
cysto   cystoscopy  
DRE   digital rectal exam  
ED   erectile dysfunction  
ESRD   end-stage renal disease  
ESWL   extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy  
EU   excretory urography  
GU   genitourinary  
HD   hemodialysis  
IVP   intravenous pyelography  
IVU   intravenous urography  
K   potassium  
KUB   kidney ureter bladder  
Na   sodium  
PCNL   percutaneous nephrolithotomy  
pH   symbol for degree of acidity or alkalinity  
PSA   prostate-specific antigen  
RP   retrograde pyelography  
sp.gr.   specific gravity  
TSE   testicular self-examination  
TURP   transurethral resection of the prostate  
UA   urinalysis  
VCUG   voiding cystourethrography  


   






 
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