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Identifying key terms

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Oxygenated blood flows through the _______________ _____________.   pulmonary veins  
The hepatic vein carries blood from the vena cava to the ____________.   Liver  
The heart is positioned in the mediastinum :   Between the lungs, superior to the diaphragm.  
The pericardial space is found between ___________ and the _____________pericardium.   Visceral and parietal pericardium.  
The QRS complex of the EKG represents ___________________ depolarization.   Ventricular  
Compared with arteries, veins: have a ________ diameter.   larger diameter  
Another name for the mitral valve is the __________ valve.   Bicuspid  
Backflow of the blood from the arteries into the relaxing ventricles is prevented by the _________ valves.   Semiluminar  
In pulmonary circulation, blood flows from right ventricle, thru the pulmonary veins to the ____________   Lungs  
During relaxation or _______________________, blood fills the chambers.   Diastole  
In __________________, the heart contracts and forces blood from the chamber into the pulmonary or systemic circulation.   Systole  
True or False? The blood within the heart chambers supplies oxygen and other nutrients to the cells of the heart.   False  
True or False? Blood flows from a higher pressure area toward a lower pressure area.   True  
Normally, electrical impulses arise in the __________________ node called the pacemaker of the heart.   Sinoatrial node.  
In pulmonary circulation, blood flows from the lungs, thru the pulmonary arteries to the left ________________.   Atrium  
A tubular network that permits blood to flow from the heart to all living cells of the body and then back to the heart.   Blood vessels  
A 4-chambered, double pump in the body   Heart  
The path of the blood from the heart, through to the lungs and back completes one circuit called the ___________________ circulation.   Pulmonary  
The upper 2 chambers of the heart that receive venous blood   Atria  
The lower 2 chambers of the heart, the right and left ventricles pump blood into the the _____________ system.   Arterial  
The _____________ skeleton located between the atria and ventricles of the heart is a layer of dense connective tissue.   Fibrous  
The chamber of the heart that pumps oxygenated blood out to the body.   Left ventricle  
Oxygen rich blood is supplied by the aorta to arterial branches supplying the organ systems and is part of the ______________ circulation.   Systemic  
The 3 flapped AV valve between the right atrium and right ventricle.   Triscupid  
Blood that drains back into the systemic veins is partially depleted in ______________ but increased in carbon dioxide content.   Oxygen  
The superior and inferior ____________ ______________ return oxygen poor blood back to the right atrium.   Vena Cavae  
Atria depolarization creates the ____ waves.   P-waves  
ECG or EKG   Electrocardiogram  
The atrioventricular bundle is also called the __________ __ ______ and begins at the top of the interventricular septum.   Bundle of His  
The effect of the massaging action of skeletal muscles on venous blood flow.   Skeletal muscle pump  
A cardiac rate less than 60 beats per minute.   Bradycardia  
A cardiac rate greater than 100 beats per minute.   Tachycardia  
The ______ fibers transmit the electrical impulse into the ventricular muscle and cause it to contract.   Purkinje  
Blood is ejected from the ventricles until the pressure within them falls below the pressure in the ________________.   Arteries  
Closing of the AV valve produces the first heart sound or_______ at systole.   Lub  
The second heart sound or "dub" is produced in _____________.   Diastole  
____________ and veins contain 3 layers: intima, media and externa.   Arteries  
The ventricles contract at systole to close the ___ valves   AV  
Changes in the cardiac rate primarily reflect changes in the duration of systole or diastole.   Diastole  
The approximate size of the heart is the size of a _____.   Fist  
Middle muscular layer   Myocardium  
Returns blood from the head, arms and upper body to heart   Superior vena cava  
The largest artery in the body. It transports oxygenated blood to entire body.   Aorta  
Where is the AV node located   floor of the R atrium  
Required for the production of Prothrombin and clotting factors VII, Ix, & X. Synthesis of components for clotting.   Vitamin K  
Deficiency of vitamin K can cause   Bleeding disorder  
5 types of ________________ vessels exist in the heart   Blood vessels  
Veins, arteries, capillaries, arterioles, venules   Types of blood vessels  
small veins   venules  
Small branch of artety leading to the capillaries   arterioles  
any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules   Capillaries  
They are responsible for returning deoxygenated blood back to the heart after arteries carry blood out   Veins  
the largest vein   Vena cava  
large blood vessels that receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and drain into the left atrium of the heart.   Pulmonary Veins  
The outer layer of the vein is connective tissue called   tunica adventitia or or tunica externa  
The middle layer of smooth muscle called of the vein   tunica media  
rhythmic pulses of blood thru the arteries   Pulse  
blood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body thru   arteries  
The mechanisms that facilitate capillary exchange   diffusion, transcytosis ,bulk flow ( filtration & Reabsorption)  
The 3 types of capillaries   Fenesetroids, sinusoids, and continuous  
Possess small windows or pores in the endothelium, found in the kidneys, small intestines, brain and endocrine glands.   Fenesteroids  
larger, winding capillaries and have very large clefts, found in the liver, bone marrow, spleen and endocrine glands.   Sinusoids  
Plasma membrane forms a continuous tube interrupted only by clefts between the endothelial cells   Continuous capillaries  
This system assures the slowdown of blood for absorption. Blood flows thru the capillary network into a portal vein.   Portal system  
Where the WBCs leave the blood, very porous and receive blood from the capillaries   Venules  
Veins in the limbs possess these...   Valves  
Baglike vein   Venus Sinuses  
Most tissue of the body receive blood from more than one artery via an ...   Anastomosis  
Percentage of blood in the systemic capillaries at ret   7%  
Percentage of blood in the heart at rest   7%  
Percentage of blood in the systemic veins and venules at rest.   64%  
Percentage of blood in the pulmonary vessels   9%  
Percentage of blood in the systemic arteries and arterioles   13%  
Involves the movement of a vesicle in through 1 side of the cell and out the other side.   Transcytosis  
Most important method of capillary exchange. Simple occurs from areas of high to low.   Diffusion  
Cannot diffuse in capillary diffusion because they are too large.   RBCs and proteins  
A passive process in capillary exchange. Involves the passing of molecules in fluids from areas of high to low.. filtration   Bulk flow  
Large lipid insoluble molecules like insulin enter the blood stream via this type of exchange   Transcytosis  
passive and depends on concentration gradient. Movement of materials from liquids from interstitial fluids back into the blood.   Reabsorption  
Stroke volume times heart rate   cardiac output  
Blood flows from regions of ___________ pressure to regions of ____________ pressure   High, low  
The lower the pressure difference the greater the blood flow. True or false   False  
Blood pressure is highest in the aorta and elastic arteries and lower in the capillaries and venules. True or False   True  
Systolic BP   110mm Hg  
Diastolic BP   70mmHg  
Blood pressure rises if blood volume increases or decreases if volume drops+ True or False   True  
The blood vessels in the circulatory system   Vasa Vasorum  
the innermost wall of the arteries; layer of elastic tissue   Tunica interna or intima  
In capillary networks found between the network and the arterioles; at the arterial end possess scattered smooth tissue   Metarterioles  
Thoroughfare channel is formed by this   Metarterioles  
The job of __________________ is to exchange materials with the interstitial fluids surrounding cells   Capillaries  
The most important method of capillary exchange, important for solute exchange.   Diffusion  
A dense liquid thicker than water.   Blood  
Normal temperature of blood   100.4 F  
Blood comprises what percentage of body mass   8%  
Blood has 2 primary components   Formed elements and blood plasma  
Approximate percentage of formed elements   45%  
Percentage of blood plasma that is water   90-92%  
Red blood cells, white blood cells and __________________ are the formed elements of blood   Platelets  
Consist of 3 grandular leukocytes and 2 agranular leukocytes   White blood cells  
monocytes and T&B lymphocytes   Angrandular leukocytes  
neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils   Granular leukocytes  
formation of blood   homopoiesis/hematopoiesis  
Regulates the # of platelets and RBCs   Negative feedback  
It's regulation depends on the circumstances of the body   WBCs  
The site of hematopoiesis beginning at birth and continuing throughout life.   Red bone marrow  
About 1% of the cells of the marrow are derived from ____________________ and are pluripotent stem cells   Mesenchyme  
Cells with the ability to differentiate into themselves and into cells that give rise to blood cells   Stem Cells  
T or F. Once blood cells are produced in the red marrow, they do not divide...with the exception of white blood cells.   True  
Divided into 2 types of stem cells: myeloid and lymphoid   Pluripotent stem cells  
Originate in the red marrow & hormone play a large role in hemopoiesis   Myeloid stem cells  
Give rise to lymphocytes and begin life in the red marrow but complete differentiation in the lymph tissue   Lymphoid Stem Cells  
Red blood cells. biconcave in shape and live for about 120 days   Erythrocytes  
Lack a nucleus and other organelles and carry some antigens which account for ABO blood typing   Erythrocytes  
Oxygen carrying machines. Do not use the oxygen they transport.   RBCs  
# of oxygen molecules a heme can carry   4 oxygen molecules  
Transports about 23% of the CO2   Heme molecule  
cellular oxygen deficiency   hypoxia  
causes the kidney to speed up production of erythropoietin   Hypoxia  
Large round cells that stain red with visible nucleus   Eosinophils  
Large round cells that stain purple, nucleus is bi-lobed   Basophils  
Nucleus usually has 5 lobes and the chromatin strands connecting the lobes is thin; stain purple   Neutrophils  
T or F: All WBCs and all nucleated cells of the body possess major histocompatability antigens on their plasma membranes   True  
A decrease in the # of WBCs   Leukopenia  
process whereby wbcs stick to the endothelium then squeeze between the endothelial cells   Diapedesis/emigration  
Contain many vesicles inside a plasma membrane but no nucleus   Blood platelets  
Develop from myeloid stem cells under the hormone...thrombopoietin   blood plates/thrombocytes  
A series of events which stop bleeding/hemorrhage   hemastosis  
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation and blood clotting or coagulation   3 mechanisms that reduce blood flow  
3 stages if clotting formation include the extrinsic, intrinsic and _______________ pathways   Common  
Outside pathway that occurs in the blood and in the presence of Ca, tissue factors forms/ activates factor x   Extrinsic pathway  
In the extrinsic pathway, Factor X in the presence of Ca activates and forms Factor ______   Factor V  
Factor V in the presence of Ca, forms and activates ________________.   Prothrombinase  
Pathway that is eventually Factor XII activted   Intrinsic Pathway  
Pathway that begins with the formation of Prothrombinase   Common Pathway  
Thrombin + Calcium converts ___________________ to insoluble fibrin threads.   Fibrinogen  
Helps to activate Factor XIII which serves to strengthen the fibrin and help form a strong blood clot.   Thrombin  
T or F. Platelets also contribute to the building of a strong clot because the release some factor XIII when they are trapped in the clot   True  
Can activate factor V and can cause platelets to congregate and to release phospholipids   2 Positive feedback mechanisms for Thrombin  
The formation of fibrin clot plugs the blood vessels or the tightening of the fibrin clot   Clot retraction  


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