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Heart, Blood, EKGs

Identifying key terms

Oxygenated blood flows through the _______________ _____________. pulmonary veins
The hepatic vein carries blood from the vena cava to the ____________. Liver
The heart is positioned in the mediastinum : Between the lungs, superior to the diaphragm.
The pericardial space is found between ___________ and the _____________pericardium. Visceral and parietal pericardium.
The QRS complex of the EKG represents ___________________ depolarization. Ventricular
Compared with arteries, veins: have a ________ diameter. larger diameter
Another name for the mitral valve is the __________ valve. Bicuspid
Backflow of the blood from the arteries into the relaxing ventricles is prevented by the _________ valves. Semiluminar
In pulmonary circulation, blood flows from right ventricle, thru the pulmonary veins to the ____________ Lungs
During relaxation or _______________________, blood fills the chambers. Diastole
In __________________, the heart contracts and forces blood from the chamber into the pulmonary or systemic circulation. Systole
True or False? The blood within the heart chambers supplies oxygen and other nutrients to the cells of the heart. False
True or False? Blood flows from a higher pressure area toward a lower pressure area. True
Normally, electrical impulses arise in the __________________ node called the pacemaker of the heart. Sinoatrial node.
In pulmonary circulation, blood flows from the lungs, thru the pulmonary arteries to the left ________________. Atrium
A tubular network that permits blood to flow from the heart to all living cells of the body and then back to the heart. Blood vessels
A 4-chambered, double pump in the body Heart
The path of the blood from the heart, through to the lungs and back completes one circuit called the ___________________ circulation. Pulmonary
The upper 2 chambers of the heart that receive venous blood Atria
The lower 2 chambers of the heart, the right and left ventricles pump blood into the the _____________ system. Arterial
The _____________ skeleton located between the atria and ventricles of the heart is a layer of dense connective tissue. Fibrous
The chamber of the heart that pumps oxygenated blood out to the body. Left ventricle
Oxygen rich blood is supplied by the aorta to arterial branches supplying the organ systems and is part of the ______________ circulation. Systemic
The 3 flapped AV valve between the right atrium and right ventricle. Triscupid
Blood that drains back into the systemic veins is partially depleted in ______________ but increased in carbon dioxide content. Oxygen
The superior and inferior ____________ ______________ return oxygen poor blood back to the right atrium. Vena Cavae
Atria depolarization creates the ____ waves. P-waves
ECG or EKG Electrocardiogram
The atrioventricular bundle is also called the __________ __ ______ and begins at the top of the interventricular septum. Bundle of His
The effect of the massaging action of skeletal muscles on venous blood flow. Skeletal muscle pump
A cardiac rate less than 60 beats per minute. Bradycardia
A cardiac rate greater than 100 beats per minute. Tachycardia
The ______ fibers transmit the electrical impulse into the ventricular muscle and cause it to contract. Purkinje
Blood is ejected from the ventricles until the pressure within them falls below the pressure in the ________________. Arteries
Closing of the AV valve produces the first heart sound or_______ at systole. Lub
The second heart sound or "dub" is produced in _____________. Diastole
____________ and veins contain 3 layers: intima, media and externa. Arteries
The ventricles contract at systole to close the ___ valves AV
Changes in the cardiac rate primarily reflect changes in the duration of systole or diastole. Diastole
The approximate size of the heart is the size of a _____. Fist
Middle muscular layer Myocardium
Returns blood from the head, arms and upper body to heart Superior vena cava
The largest artery in the body. It transports oxygenated blood to entire body. Aorta
Where is the AV node located floor of the R atrium
Required for the production of Prothrombin and clotting factors VII, Ix, & X. Synthesis of components for clotting. Vitamin K
Deficiency of vitamin K can cause Bleeding disorder
5 types of ________________ vessels exist in the heart Blood vessels
Veins, arteries, capillaries, arterioles, venules Types of blood vessels
small veins venules
Small branch of artety leading to the capillaries arterioles
any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules Capillaries
They are responsible for returning deoxygenated blood back to the heart after arteries carry blood out Veins
the largest vein Vena cava
large blood vessels that receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and drain into the left atrium of the heart. Pulmonary Veins
The outer layer of the vein is connective tissue called tunica adventitia or or tunica externa
The middle layer of smooth muscle called of the vein tunica media
rhythmic pulses of blood thru the arteries Pulse
blood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body thru arteries
The mechanisms that facilitate capillary exchange diffusion, transcytosis ,bulk flow ( filtration & Reabsorption)
The 3 types of capillaries Fenesetroids, sinusoids, and continuous
Possess small windows or pores in the endothelium, found in the kidneys, small intestines, brain and endocrine glands. Fenesteroids
larger, winding capillaries and have very large clefts, found in the liver, bone marrow, spleen and endocrine glands. Sinusoids
Plasma membrane forms a continuous tube interrupted only by clefts between the endothelial cells Continuous capillaries
This system assures the slowdown of blood for absorption. Blood flows thru the capillary network into a portal vein. Portal system
Where the WBCs leave the blood, very porous and receive blood from the capillaries Venules
Veins in the limbs possess these... Valves
Baglike vein Venus Sinuses
Most tissue of the body receive blood from more than one artery via an ... Anastomosis
Percentage of blood in the systemic capillaries at ret 7%
Percentage of blood in the heart at rest 7%
Percentage of blood in the systemic veins and venules at rest. 64%
Percentage of blood in the pulmonary vessels 9%
Percentage of blood in the systemic arteries and arterioles 13%
Involves the movement of a vesicle in through 1 side of the cell and out the other side. Transcytosis
Most important method of capillary exchange. Simple occurs from areas of high to low. Diffusion
Cannot diffuse in capillary diffusion because they are too large. RBCs and proteins
A passive process in capillary exchange. Involves the passing of molecules in fluids from areas of high to low.. filtration Bulk flow
Large lipid insoluble molecules like insulin enter the blood stream via this type of exchange Transcytosis
passive and depends on concentration gradient. Movement of materials from liquids from interstitial fluids back into the blood. Reabsorption
Stroke volume times heart rate cardiac output
Blood flows from regions of ___________ pressure to regions of ____________ pressure High, low
The lower the pressure difference the greater the blood flow. True or false False
Blood pressure is highest in the aorta and elastic arteries and lower in the capillaries and venules. True or False True
Systolic BP 110mm Hg
Diastolic BP 70mmHg
Blood pressure rises if blood volume increases or decreases if volume drops+ True or False True
The blood vessels in the circulatory system Vasa Vasorum
the innermost wall of the arteries; layer of elastic tissue Tunica interna or intima
In capillary networks found between the network and the arterioles; at the arterial end possess scattered smooth tissue Metarterioles
Thoroughfare channel is formed by this Metarterioles
The job of __________________ is to exchange materials with the interstitial fluids surrounding cells Capillaries
The most important method of capillary exchange, important for solute exchange. Diffusion
A dense liquid thicker than water. Blood
Normal temperature of blood 100.4 F
Blood comprises what percentage of body mass 8%
Blood has 2 primary components Formed elements and blood plasma
Approximate percentage of formed elements 45%
Percentage of blood plasma that is water 90-92%
Red blood cells, white blood cells and __________________ are the formed elements of blood Platelets
Consist of 3 grandular leukocytes and 2 agranular leukocytes White blood cells
monocytes and T&B lymphocytes Angrandular leukocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils Granular leukocytes
formation of blood homopoiesis/hematopoiesis
Regulates the # of platelets and RBCs Negative feedback
It's regulation depends on the circumstances of the body WBCs
The site of hematopoiesis beginning at birth and continuing throughout life. Red bone marrow
About 1% of the cells of the marrow are derived from ____________________ and are pluripotent stem cells Mesenchyme
Cells with the ability to differentiate into themselves and into cells that give rise to blood cells Stem Cells
T or F. Once blood cells are produced in the red marrow, they do not divide...with the exception of white blood cells. True
Divided into 2 types of stem cells: myeloid and lymphoid Pluripotent stem cells
Originate in the red marrow & hormone play a large role in hemopoiesis Myeloid stem cells
Give rise to lymphocytes and begin life in the red marrow but complete differentiation in the lymph tissue Lymphoid Stem Cells
Red blood cells. biconcave in shape and live for about 120 days Erythrocytes
Lack a nucleus and other organelles and carry some antigens which account for ABO blood typing Erythrocytes
Oxygen carrying machines. Do not use the oxygen they transport. RBCs
# of oxygen molecules a heme can carry 4 oxygen molecules
Transports about 23% of the CO2 Heme molecule
cellular oxygen deficiency hypoxia
causes the kidney to speed up production of erythropoietin Hypoxia
Large round cells that stain red with visible nucleus Eosinophils
Large round cells that stain purple, nucleus is bi-lobed Basophils
Nucleus usually has 5 lobes and the chromatin strands connecting the lobes is thin; stain purple Neutrophils
T or F: All WBCs and all nucleated cells of the body possess major histocompatability antigens on their plasma membranes True
A decrease in the # of WBCs Leukopenia
process whereby wbcs stick to the endothelium then squeeze between the endothelial cells Diapedesis/emigration
Contain many vesicles inside a plasma membrane but no nucleus Blood platelets
Develop from myeloid stem cells under the hormone...thrombopoietin blood plates/thrombocytes
A series of events which stop bleeding/hemorrhage hemastosis
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation and blood clotting or coagulation 3 mechanisms that reduce blood flow
3 stages if clotting formation include the extrinsic, intrinsic and _______________ pathways Common
Outside pathway that occurs in the blood and in the presence of Ca, tissue factors forms/ activates factor x Extrinsic pathway
In the extrinsic pathway, Factor X in the presence of Ca activates and forms Factor ______ Factor V
Factor V in the presence of Ca, forms and activates ________________. Prothrombinase
Pathway that is eventually Factor XII activted Intrinsic Pathway
Pathway that begins with the formation of Prothrombinase Common Pathway
Thrombin + Calcium converts ___________________ to insoluble fibrin threads. Fibrinogen
Helps to activate Factor XIII which serves to strengthen the fibrin and help form a strong blood clot. Thrombin
T or F. Platelets also contribute to the building of a strong clot because the release some factor XIII when they are trapped in the clot True
Can activate factor V and can cause platelets to congregate and to release phospholipids 2 Positive feedback mechanisms for Thrombin
The formation of fibrin clot plugs the blood vessels or the tightening of the fibrin clot Clot retraction
Created by: TutorDavis17