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Muscle Tissue

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Muscle tissue, one of the four basic tissue groups, consists chiefly of cells that are highly specialized for _____________.   contraction  
What are the functions of skeletal muscle?   produces movement, maintain posture, maintain body temp and guards body entrances and exits  
At each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium, come together to form a ____________________.   tendon  
The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds an entire skeletal muscle is the ____________.   epimysium  
A fascicle is a ___________.   group of muscle fibers that is encased in the perimysium  
The delicate connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle fibers together is the _____________.   endyomysium  
Put the following structures in order from superficial to deep. 1. muscle fiber 2. perimysium 3. myofibril 4. fascicle 5. endomysium 6. epimysium   (1) endomysium (2) perimysium (3) epimysium (4) myofibril (5) fascicle (6) muscle fiber  
The advantage of having many nuclei in a skeletal muscle fiber is the ability to _______________.   produce large amounts of muscle protiens  
Skeletal muscle fibers are formed from embryonic cells called _____________.   myoblasts  
The plasma membrane of a skeletal muscle fiber is called the _________________.   sarcolemma  
Muscle fibers differ from "typical cells" in that muscle fibers _________________.   have many nuclei  
Describe the sarcoplasmic reticulum.   storage and release site for calcium ions  
The skeletal muscle complex known as the triad consists of _______________.   a transverse tubule and two terminal cisternae  
Each skeletal muscle fiber contains _________ myofibrils.   100-1000s  
What is titin?   protein that accounts for elasticity of resting muscle  
At rest, active sites on the actin are blocked by _______________.   tropmyosin molecules  
Since each myofibril is attached at either end of the muscle fiber, when sacromeres shorten, the muscle fiber _______________.   shortens  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) Identify the structure labeled "1".   mitochondria  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) Which of the following are found in the structure labeled "3"?   thick and thin filaments  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) What physiological process occurs in the structure labeled "7"?   takes action potential deeper into cell  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) What is released from the structure labeled "9"?   calcium  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) Where would calcium ions be predominately found?   sarcoplasmic reticulum  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) Which structure has pumps to remove calcium ions from the sarcoplasm to produce relaxation?   SR and terminal cisternae of SR  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) Where are the myosin molecules located?   at each end of the myofilament  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) Which structure contains the motor end plate?   sarcolemma  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) Identify the structure where ATP is produced.   mitochondria  
Use Figure 10-1 (Skeletal Muscle Fiber) Identify the structure(s) where ATP is consumed?   thick filament, SR, terminal cisternae of SR  
In response to action potentials arriving along the tranverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases _______________.   calcium ions  
The narrow space between the synaptic terminal and the muscle fiber is the _______.   synaptic cleft  
Receptors for acetylcholine are located on the _____________.   motor end plate  
The action potential is conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by ___________________.   transverse tubule  
The most important factor in decreasing the intracellular concentration of calcium ion after contraction is _______________.   active transport of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum  
After death, muscle fibers run out of ATP and calcium begins to leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm. This results in a condition known as _____________.   rigor mortis  
What happens during rigor mortis?   ATP is depleted, the myosin heads are attached to actin, calcium ions keep binding to troponin, sustained contractions occur  
Triggering of the muscle action potential occurs after ____________ binds to chemically-gated channels in the motor end plate.   acetylcholine  
The following is a list of the events that occur during a muscle contraction. What is the correct sequence of these events?   3,5,1,4,6,2  
How would the loss of acetylcholinesterase from the motor end plate affect skeletal muscle?   it would cause muscles to stay contracted  
When acetylcholine binds to receptors at the motor end plate, the sarcolemma becomes ________________.   more permeable to sodium ions  
The cytoplasm of the neuromuscular terminal contains vesicles filled with molecules of the neurotransmitter ___________.   acetylcholine  
Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters that are released by _____________ when the action potential arrives.   calcium  
The muscle weakness of myasthenia gravis results from _____________.   exocytosis  
A patient takes a medication that blocks ACH receptors of skeletal muscle fibers. What is this drug's effect on skeletal muscle contraction?   reduces the muscle ability for contraction  
The rapid rise and fill in force produced by a muscle fiber after a single action potential is a(n) ______________.   twitch  
When a muscle is stimulated repeatedly at a high rate, the amount of tension gradually increased to a steady maximum tension. This state of maximum tension is called ____________.   complete tenatus  
A muscle producing almost peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation is said to in _______________.   incomplete tenatus  
If a 2nd stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase has ended, a 2nd more powerful contraction occurs. This addition of one twitch to another is called ____________.   wave summation  
The contraction of a muscle exerts a pull on a bone because muscles attach to bone by _____________.   tendons  
Differentiate between isometric and isotonic contraction.   isometric muscles do not shorten and they have more tension isotonic muscles shorten with tension being put on the muscle  
A weight-lifter strains to lift a heavy weight and there is no movement of the person's arms holding on to the weight. This type of contraction is called a(n) __________ contraction.   isometric  
What happens in the liver, during the Cori cycle?   glucose is produced from lactic acid  
A resting muscle generates most of its ATP by _______________.   aerobic respiration  
What is creatine phosphate?   acts as an energy reserve in muscle tissue  
Aerobic metabolism normally provides _______ percent of the ATP demands of a resting muscle cell.   95  
After heavy exercise, if energy reserves in a muscle are depleted, ______________ occurs.   an oxygen debt  
At peak levels of muscle exertion the mitochondria can supply ____________ of the energy required by the muscle.   1/3  
Which hormone directly stimulates growth of muscle tissue, leading to increased muscle mass?   testosterone  
Decreased blood flow to a muscle could result in?   an increase in intracellular glycogen  
How would an elevated level of thyroid hormone in the body affect skeletal muscles?   it would stimulate metabolism  
Heat energy gained from muscle contraction is released by the _______ system.   integumentary  
Describe fast, slow and intermediate fibers. Describe human muscle fibers.   slow twitch -smallest in diameter, least powerful and dark red fast twitch -largest in diameter, most powerful and white intermediate twitch -intermediate diameter, pink, less strength/endurance  
Muscles that move the eyeball have __________ fibers.   fast  
Fast muscle fibers can adapt to aerobic metabolism by generating more mitochondria in response to _______________.   repeated, exhaustive stimulation  
Compare slow muscle fibers to fast muscle fibers.   slow muscle fibers generate less tension, rich in red protein myoglobin, take 3x as long to reach peak tension and have smaller fiber diamters  
Large-diameter, densely packed myofibrils, large glycogen reserves and few mitochondria are characteristics of _________________.   fast fibers  
A(n) ___________ can be described as a broad tendinous sheet.   aponeurosis  
An infection by the bacterium "clostridium tetani" can case the disease called ____________.   tetanus  
A muscle produces its highest tension when in complete _____________.   tetanus  
*SHORT ANSWER QUESTION* A hypothetical genetic disease causes the body to produce antibodies that compete with acetylcholine for receptors on the motor end plate.   This is a case of competition between acetycholine & the antibody. To make the patient's acetycholine more effective, a drug that inhibits acetycholinesterase would slow the breakdown of acetylcholine, relieving some of the weakness.  
*CONTINUED* Patients with this disease exhibit varying degrees of muscle weakness in affected muscle. If you could administer a drug that inhibits acetylcholinesterase/a drug that blocks acetylcholine, which one would you use to alleviate these symtoms?   *CONTINUED* An acetylcholine blocker would be worse than doing nothing.  
*SHORT ANSWER QUESTION* 30 min. after Mary has completed a 25km race, she begins to notice severe muscle soreness/stiffness in her legs. Her urine is dark. She wonders whether she may have damaged her muscles during the race. She visits the ER.   If muscle damage has occurred, dr would find enzymes such as creatine kinase & proteins such as myoglobin or troponin in the bloodstream released by injured skeletal muscle cells. The level of these substances correlates with the severity of the injury.  
*CONTINUED* Dr. orders several blood tests. What kind of blood tests can help determine whether muscle damage has occurred?    
*SHORT ANSWER QUESTION* Megan wants to enter a weight-lifting competition & consults you as to what type of muscle fibers she needs to develop & how she should go about it. What would you suggest to her?   Weight-lifting requires anaerobic endurance. Megan would want to develop her fast fibers for short term maximum strength. She would acheive this by engaging in activities that involve frequent, breif, but intensive workouts, such as heavy weights  
  *CONTINUED* to the point of muscle fatigue. The fatigue triggers the production of new myofilament proteins, leading to muscle bulk & strength,  
The bundle of collagen fibers at the end of a skeletal muscle that attached the muscle to bone is called a(n) ___________   tendon  
Describe the recovery period following exercise.   muscle fibers are unable to contract  


   


 
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