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Reproductive System

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Primary Sex organs   Testes and ovaries  
Secondary sex organs   penis and uterus  
spermatic cord   strand of connective tissue extending from the abdomen to each testicle  
cremaster mucle   surrounds the spermatic cord and contracts in cold weather to draw testes closer to body for warmth  
stored mature sperm remain fertile for....   40-60 days  
leydig cells   produce testosterone  
seminiferous tubules   ducts in which sperm are produces, contained in the walls are sertoli cells which promote the development of sperm  
epididymis   where sperm mature and ultimately are stored  
vas deferens   structure that travels from the epididymis through the spermatic cord into the pelvic cavity and over the ureter to the prostate  
onset of puberty triggers the secretion of two gonadotropins....   FSH and LH  
seminal vesicle   secretes fluid containing semen,frutose, and other substances into ejaculatory duct  
ejaculatory duct   a pair of tubules that pass through the prostate and empty into the urethra  
corpus cavernosa   two large cylinders of erectile tissue that fill the shaft of the penis  
spermatogenesis   begins in the seminiferous tubules  
acrosome   enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg during fertilization  
two key qualities of semen include..   stickiness and alkalinity  
semen stickiness quality   allows semen to stick to the walls of vagina and cervix instead of immediately draining out  
semen alkalinity   counteracts the acidity of vagina  
ovaries   two, about the shape of almonds, sits on each side of the uterus, produce eggs and sex hormones, contains thousands of immature eggs.  
vagina   muscular tube that serves as a receptacle for the penis and sperm  
an embryo....   attaches to the endometrium of the uterus  
uterus   muscular chamber that houses a growing embryo  
acini   secretes milk during lactation  
the reproductive cycle averages..   28 days in length  
ovulation   prompted by spike in LH  
falling levels of estrogen and progesterone trigger..   menstruation  
hormonal method of birth control   interferes with follicular development and ovulation  
gestation cycle   about 40 weeks  
second trimester   weeks 13 through 24, most of the organs are deeloped  
preembryonic stage   begins when fertilization forms azygote with 46 chromosomes  
morula results   blackberry like cluster of 16 cells, mitotic divisions  
trophoblast   plays key role in ensuring the continuation of an early pregnancy  
amnion   filled with fluid the protects the embryo from trauma and changes in temp.  
embryonic stage begins ....   once germ layers are formed (16 days after conception)  
the umbilical cord contains...   two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein  
the mothers blood and fetus blood..   does not mix  
fraternal twins   two placentas  
the placenta also secretes...   estrogen,progesterone, and HCG to maintain the pregnancy  
most of the blood bypasses the liver by...   flowing through the ductus venosus into the inferior vena cava  
the heart begins to beat...   around day 22  
oxygen-depleted blood flows through the two umbilical arteries to the placenta....   re-oxygenates it and returns it to the fetus through the umbilical vein  
fetal movement (quickening) can be felt...   week 20  
the respiratory system, although immature, is capable of gas exchange   at 28 weeks.  
physical changes with pregnancy in circulatory system   increase blood volume by 30-50%, cardiac output increase 30-40% by week 27, as uterus demands more blood supply, heart rate increases also  
probable triggers to labor...   decline in progesterone, release of oxytocin, uterine stretching  
first stage of labor is longest:   6-18 hours for first time, short for multiple pregancy  
stage two of labor   begins with full dilation of the cervix and ends when the baby is born  
anterior pituitary- prolactin   milk production  
posterior pituitary- ocytocin   milk secretion, causing the lobules in the breast to contract forcing milk into the ducts  
heredity   process of passing traits from biological parents to children  
genetics   the study of inheritance  
genes   segments of DNA  
chromosomes   consist of long strands tightly coiled DNA  
autosomes   chromosomes from mother and chromosomes from father  
female gametes contain only...   X chromosomes  
a child's sex is determined by...   the presence or absence of certain chromosomes  
A child's genetic information   is inherited from both the mother and father  
genome   a complete set of genetic information for one person  
homozygous   person has two alleles that are the same  
heterozygous   if the alleles are different  
for a recessive allele to be expressed,   both chromosomes must carry identical allels  
mutation   a permanent change in genetic material  
autosomal recessive inheritance   children who inherit a single copy of the allele become carriers of the disorder( they cant get it but can pass it on to their children.  
autosomal dominant inheritance   child receives one copy from mother and one from father, child has 50% chance of developing the disorder  


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Created by: Kylee_cheyenne