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Module 15

Reproductive System

Primary Sex organs Testes and ovaries
Secondary sex organs penis and uterus
spermatic cord strand of connective tissue extending from the abdomen to each testicle
cremaster mucle surrounds the spermatic cord and contracts in cold weather to draw testes closer to body for warmth
stored mature sperm remain fertile for.... 40-60 days
leydig cells produce testosterone
seminiferous tubules ducts in which sperm are produces, contained in the walls are sertoli cells which promote the development of sperm
epididymis where sperm mature and ultimately are stored
vas deferens structure that travels from the epididymis through the spermatic cord into the pelvic cavity and over the ureter to the prostate
onset of puberty triggers the secretion of two gonadotropins.... FSH and LH
seminal vesicle secretes fluid containing semen,frutose, and other substances into ejaculatory duct
ejaculatory duct a pair of tubules that pass through the prostate and empty into the urethra
corpus cavernosa two large cylinders of erectile tissue that fill the shaft of the penis
spermatogenesis begins in the seminiferous tubules
acrosome enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg during fertilization
two key qualities of semen include.. stickiness and alkalinity
semen stickiness quality allows semen to stick to the walls of vagina and cervix instead of immediately draining out
semen alkalinity counteracts the acidity of vagina
ovaries two, about the shape of almonds, sits on each side of the uterus, produce eggs and sex hormones, contains thousands of immature eggs.
vagina muscular tube that serves as a receptacle for the penis and sperm
an embryo.... attaches to the endometrium of the uterus
uterus muscular chamber that houses a growing embryo
acini secretes milk during lactation
the reproductive cycle averages.. 28 days in length
ovulation prompted by spike in LH
falling levels of estrogen and progesterone trigger.. menstruation
hormonal method of birth control interferes with follicular development and ovulation
gestation cycle about 40 weeks
second trimester weeks 13 through 24, most of the organs are deeloped
preembryonic stage begins when fertilization forms azygote with 46 chromosomes
morula results blackberry like cluster of 16 cells, mitotic divisions
trophoblast plays key role in ensuring the continuation of an early pregnancy
amnion filled with fluid the protects the embryo from trauma and changes in temp.
embryonic stage begins .... once germ layers are formed (16 days after conception)
the umbilical cord contains... two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein
the mothers blood and fetus blood.. does not mix
fraternal twins two placentas
the placenta also secretes... estrogen,progesterone, and HCG to maintain the pregnancy
most of the blood bypasses the liver by... flowing through the ductus venosus into the inferior vena cava
the heart begins to beat... around day 22
oxygen-depleted blood flows through the two umbilical arteries to the placenta.... re-oxygenates it and returns it to the fetus through the umbilical vein
fetal movement (quickening) can be felt... week 20
the respiratory system, although immature, is capable of gas exchange at 28 weeks.
physical changes with pregnancy in circulatory system increase blood volume by 30-50%, cardiac output increase 30-40% by week 27, as uterus demands more blood supply, heart rate increases also
probable triggers to labor... decline in progesterone, release of oxytocin, uterine stretching
first stage of labor is longest: 6-18 hours for first time, short for multiple pregancy
stage two of labor begins with full dilation of the cervix and ends when the baby is born
anterior pituitary- prolactin milk production
posterior pituitary- ocytocin milk secretion, causing the lobules in the breast to contract forcing milk into the ducts
heredity process of passing traits from biological parents to children
genetics the study of inheritance
genes segments of DNA
chromosomes consist of long strands tightly coiled DNA
autosomes chromosomes from mother and chromosomes from father
female gametes contain only... X chromosomes
a child's sex is determined by... the presence or absence of certain chromosomes
A child's genetic information is inherited from both the mother and father
genome a complete set of genetic information for one person
homozygous person has two alleles that are the same
heterozygous if the alleles are different
for a recessive allele to be expressed, both chromosomes must carry identical allels
mutation a permanent change in genetic material
autosomal recessive inheritance children who inherit a single copy of the allele become carriers of the disorder( they cant get it but can pass it on to their children.
autosomal dominant inheritance child receives one copy from mother and one from father, child has 50% chance of developing the disorder
Created by: Kylee_cheyenne