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BSC2086_ Chapter 17

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Two systems—the nervous and endocrine   communicate with neurotransmitters and hormones - Regulate homeostasis  
Endocrine system   glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones  
Hormones   chemical messengers that are transported by the bloodstream  
Exocrine glands   Have ducts Extracellular effects  
Endocrine glands   No ducts Intracellular effects  
Major Organs of the Endocrine System   Pineal gland Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Gonads: Ovary (female) Testis (male) Parathyroid glands  
Comparison of Nervous and Endocrine Systems   Both serve for internal communication - Nervous: both electrical and chemical - Endocrine: only chemical Speed and persistence of response - Nervous: fast - Endocrine: slow  
Comparison of Nervous and Endocrine Systems   Adaptation to long-term stimuli - Nervous: quickly - Endocrine: slowly Area of effect - Nervous: targeted and specific (one organ) - Endocrine: general, widespread effects (many organs)  
Major Chemical Classes of Hormones   Steroid hormones Monoamines Peptide hormones  
Monoamines   Thyroxine Epinephrine  
Steroid hormones   Testosterone Estradiol  
Peptide hormones   Angiotensin II Oxytocin Antidiuretic hormone  
Hormones stimulate   only those cells that have receptors for them  
Receptors   On plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus  
Receptors act like switches turning on   metabolic pathways when hormone binds to them  
Hydrophilic hormones   - Cannot penetrate into target cell - Must stimulate physiology indirectly - Most monoamines and peptides  
Hydrophobic hormones   - Penetrate plasma membrane and enter nucleus - Act on the genes changing target cell physiology - Estrogen, progesterone, thyroid hormone  
Synergistic effects   Synergism between FSH and testosterone on sperm production  
Permissive effects   Estrogen prepares uterus for action of progesterone  
Antagonistic effects   Insulin lowers blood glucose and glucagon raises it  
Hypothalamic hormones   - Gonadotropin-releasing hormone - Thyrotropin-releasing hormone - Corticotropin-releasing hormone - Prolactin-inhibiting hormone - Growth hormone-releasing hormone - Somatostatin  
Anterior lobe hormones   - Follicle-stimulating hormone - Luteinizing hormone - Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) - Adrenocorticotropic hormone - Prolactin - Growth hormone  
Neurohypophysis ( Posterior Pituitary) hormones   Produced in hypothalamus (released by PP) - Oxytocin - Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)  
Positive Feedback   TRH->TSH->TH->Target organ  
GH   - induces the liver and other tissue to produce growth stimulants called insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I AND IGF-II) or somatomedins  
Somatomedins   stimulate target cells in diverse tissue - Mostly IGF-I - IGF-II important in fetal growth  
Mechanisms of GH-IGF   - Protein synthesis - Lipid metabolism (protein sparring effect) - Carbohydrate metabolism ( glucose sparring effect) - Electrolyte Balance  
Stress   caused by any situation that upsets homeostasis and threatens one's physical or emotional well-being - Injury, surgery, infection, intense exercise, pain, grief, depression, anger, etc.  
General adaptation syndrome (GAS)   Three stages: - Alarm reaction (epinephrine and norepinephrine) - Stage of resistance (cortisol) - Stage of exhaustion (can lead to death)  
Pituitary Disorders   Head trauma affects pituitary gland's ability to secrete ADH - Diabetes insipidus  
GH Disorders   - Hypersecretion when young: gigantism - Hyposecretion when young: pituitary dwarfism - Hypersecretion as adult: acromegaly  
Thyroid Disorders   Goiter Myxedema Graves disease  
Goiter   any pathological enlargement of the thyroid gland  
Myxedema   Hypothyroidism  
Graves disease   Hyperthyroidism - may have bulging eyes later  
Adrenal Disorders   Cushing syndrome Addison's Disease  
Cushing syndrome   excess cortisol secretion - Hyperglycemia, hypertension, weakness, edema  
Addison's Disease   insufficient gluco- and mineralocorticoids  
Diabetes Mellitus   - Disruption of fuel metabolism due to hyposecretion or inaction of insulin - Elevated blood glucose, glucose and ketones in urine  
Polyuria   increased urine  
Polydipsia   thirst  
Polyphagia   hunger  
Type 1 (IDDM)—5-10%   Treated with insulin  
Type 2 (NIDDM)—90-95%   - Problem is insulin resistance (target cells do not respond) - Treated with weight-loss program and exercise  
Pathogenesis   — cells cannot absorb glucose, rely on fat and proteins for energy - Fat catabolism increases free fatty acids and ketones in blood - Ketoacidosis (ketones decr pH)  


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