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Parmacokinetics practice Quiz

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Cimetidine/ Tagamet interferes with the cytochrome p450 enzyme pathway, impairing the body's ability to detoxify drugs. This adverse effect would be considered:   Hepatotoxic  
Repeated doses of Heparin can cause Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia. This adverse effect would be considered:   Hematologic  
Repeated doses of Valium given in rapid succession can add up to a dangerous level of over sedation. This "stacking" is a/an:   Cumulative effect  
"Dig toxicity" is a constant concern with Digitalis because Digitalis:   Has a narrow Therapeutic Index  
A severe allergic reaction involving more than once organ system is:   Anaphylaxis  
What type of drug interaction indicates that one medication may reverse the effect of another?   Antagonistic  
In pharmacology, antagonistic is sort of synonymous with:   Antidote  
What type of drugs are often bound to HCl in order to administer them intravenously?   Lipid soluble drugs  
Why are lipid soluble drugs bound to HCl?   Lipids cannot be given directly into the bloodstream, the acid makes them water soluble  
Which drugs when given intravenously require you to tell your patient "A poke and a burn"?   Lipid soluble drugs  
Drugs that block ion channels (such as calcium channel blockers) work by:   Alteration of cell membrane permeability  
ED 50=   The dose of a drug that provides 50% of the optimal response  
LD50/ED50 =   TI  
Biotransformation of drugs most often takes place in what cells?   Hepatocytes  
Antidotes block specific receptor sites through a process called:   Competitive inhibition  
1mg=   1000micrograms  
Blood dyscrasias or diatheses are:   Permanent abnormality of platelets  
Administering a drug according to a sliding scale, such as insulin dosage based on blood glucose level, is a form of drug   Titration  
Elderly persons may have more active drug circulating in their blood stream because they have less bound to the plasma protein:   Albumin  
Twenty percent of hospitalizations for patients over the age of 65 are for adverse effects of medications. Illness due to drug reactions or interactions can be referred to as:   Iatrogenic  
Radiographic contrast, as well as some antibiotics may be nephrotoxic. Which of the following conditions is an example of nephrotoxicity?   Acute tubular necrosis  
Potentiation is a form of:   Synergism  
A water soluble drub binds to a cell membrane receptor. In order to cause a change in an intracellular enzyme, a/an _____ must be activated   Second messenger  
The dose of a drug that would kill 50% of the animals it was tested on would be :   LD 50  
The does of a drug that provides 50% of the maximal response is:   ED 50  
Therapeutic Index TI gives and estimate of relative safety. TI =   LD/ED  
After digestion drugs pass from the portal vein to be biotransformed in the:   CYP 450 Pathway  
Lipid Soluble Drugs:   *Pass through the cell membrane directly into the cell; *Do not require a cell membrane receptor to work; * May be stored in body fat; * May be eliminated more slowly from the body than water soluble drugs  
Grapefruit and Tagamet are examples of interference with he cytochrome p450 enzyme pathway's ability to detoxify calcium channel blockers. This could cause blood levels of the drug to:   Increase  
Permanent abnormality of platelets caused by medications would be a   blood dyscrasia  
Most biotransformation or detoxification of drugs takes place in the   liver  
Most elimination of drugs takes place in the   kidneys  
A drug which causes severe congenital defects would be called:   Teratogenic  
Tachyphylaxis (rapid loss of effectiveness) occurs through:   Accelerated biotransformation by the liver  
TI = LD/ED   Therapeutic Index  
Synergism   Potentiation  
Paradoxical   Idiosyncratic  
Hepatocytes   Detoxify drugs  
Cytochrome p450   Enzyme pathway in liver  
Cell membrane stabilizers   Effect ion channels  
Nephrotoxicity   Acute tubular necrosis  
Stacking   Cumulative effect  
Abnormality of platelets   Blood dyscrasia  
T1/2   Therapeutic half life  
Causes genetic defects   Mutagenic  
Antidote   Reversal agent  
Cimetidine/Tagamet interferes with the cytochrome p450 enzyme pathway, impairing the body's ability to detoxify drugs. This adverse effect would be considered:   Hepatotoxic  
Drugs tested in vitro are tested in:   test tubes  
Drugs tested in vivo are tested:   in the body  
CYP 450 is an:   Enzyme with a wavelength of 450 nanometers  
The population at greatest risk of polypharmacy is:   the elderly  
True or false" An adverse drug reaction is any drug effect other than what is therapeutically intended"   False  
True or False: As an individual ages in the late adulthood phase of life the liver's ability to metabolize increases as a result of increased blood flow   False  
True or false: The patient's age is a factor which can influence a drug's action and effect   True  
"First pass" through the ______________ refers to the detoxification of a drug as it completes one trip through the circulation.   Liver  
Your patient, Ms. Anita Graft is receiving a new medication which must pass through the liver in order to be chemically changed into the active form of the drug. The transformed medication that leaves the liver is called a/an:   Active metabolite  
Most drugs are eliminated from the body by:   Renal filtration  
Mechanisms of drug action include:   *Enzyme inhibition; *Enzyme stimulation; *Alteration of cell membrane permeability;* interactions with neurotransmitters  
A patient receiving Valium for sedation, instead becomes agitated. Such an adverse reaction would be described as:   Idiosyncratic  
Using one drug to enhance the effect of another is an example of:   Potentiation  
Interactions with neurotransmitters usually refers to which types of drugs?   Sedatives and analgesics  
Which drugs alter the cell membrane permeability?   Antiarrythmics  
In competitive inhibition what is competing?   Agonists and antagonists  
What type of drug interaction indicates that 2 or more meds work together more powerfully than they would alone?   Synergistic  
Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant, caffeine is a stimulant. The biological interaction of these two drugs would demonstrate:   Physiologic antagonism  
Cell membrane stabilizing drugs operate on:   Ion shifts in and out of cells  
Which type of drugs operate on nerve conduction via neurotransmitters:   Serotonin, Benzodiazepines  
What works on protein synthesis in the ribosomes   Synthroid  
What is responsible for biotransformation in the liver?   CYp450  
Competitive Inhibition   The effect of one drug canceling out the effect of another  
Give an example of mutagenic   two drugs given together cause birth defects  
What is it called when two drugs together cause a paradoxical reaction?   Idiosyncratic  
Give an example of drug synergy   One drug potentiates or enhances the effect of another drug  
Epinephrine binds to an adrenergic receptor in the heart. After a period of time the cell nucleus responds to prolonged overstimulation which caused the receptors to be withdrawn into the cell by endocytosis. What is this called   Down regulation  
What is deamination?   The break down of proteins into enzymes  
True or False: Net activity of a drug depends on its affinity for the receptor   True- Receptors have a lock shape for a certain key  
Second messenger cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate is required for the action of:   Water soluble drugs  
An adrenergic agonist would:   Stimulate sympathetic nervous system receptors  
A calcium channel agonist would:   Block the movement of calcium ions into the cell  
Stacking means:   The delayed, cumulative effect of repeated doses of a drug  
Dig toxicity is a constant concern with Digitalis because Digitalis:   Has a narrow Therapeutic Index  
A severe allergic reaction involving more than one organ system is   Anaphylaxis  
What type of drug interaction indicates that one medication may reverse the effect of another?   Antagonistic (like chewing gum in a lock; the key wont work anymore)  


   






 
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