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PATHO exam 1 review

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Edema occurs when there is an imbalance in ______ and _____ pressure   Hydrostatic, Oncotic  
Edema is an _____ of fluid in the bodys tissues   accumulation  
Pathogenesis of edema :_____ Hydrostatic pressure causes a _______ in oncotic pressure = edema   Increased, Decreased  
Pathogenesis of edema: _______ hydrostatic pressure causes a ______ in permeability of the venule = Edema   Increased, Increase  
Normally _#_ml/min blood leaves the atrial BV and _#_ ml/min enters the Lymphatic organ to get filterd while the other _#_ ml/min returns to the venule   14,2,12  
In edema when increasing ______ pressure the fluid does not return to the venule and begins to build up in body tissue . which also causes and increased rate of _______ for both venule and atrial side causing more fluid to enter the tissues   Hydrostatic, permeability  
In edema when there is a Decrease in _______ pressure this results in failure of the fluid to return to the venule and remain in the body tissue   Oncotic  
____ ______ occurs when a tumor or object(worm in Africa) is blocking the entrance of fluid into the lymphatic organ   Lymphatic obstruction  
Hyperemia is an increase in ?   Temperature  
2 types of Hyperemia   Active and Passive  
Type of Hyperemia that consists of dilatation of arterioles – Blushing, exercise, inflammation (more normal homeostasis process)   Active Hyperemia  
Type of Hyperemia that consists of decrease of venous flow; often associated with hydrostatic edema.   Passive hyperemia (congestion)  
Chronic Passive hyperemia of liver :The liver in patients with ____ ventricular failure results in a characteristic of ‘Nutmeg liver’ (multiple red depressed cells).   right  
Chronic Passive hyperemia of lung: The lung in the patients with___ ventricular failure often leads to alveolar fibrosis (brown induration of the lung). The _____ in the lung are known as ‘Heart failure cells’. (may be caused by smoking)   left, macrophages  
what parts of the circulatory system have the highest blood volume ? and what has the least blood volume   Veins and venules (64%) have the most , Arteries & arterioles (13%), Capillaries (7%) have the least  
What type of Hemorrhage has a BRIGHT red color and has a pulsating flow (squirts RAPIDLY)   Atrial Hemorrhage  
What type of Hemorrhage has a DARKER red color and has a steady SLOW flow ?   Venous Hemorrhage  
What type of Hemorrhage has a reddish mixed with blue , violet color and has a slow, even flow ?   Capillary Hemorrhage  
_____ Hemorrhage results from soft tissue injury (You can see it ) ,   External  
For External Hemorrhage The seriousness of the injury is dependent on : 2 Things   1.Anatomical source of hemorrhage (aterial,venous,capillary) 2. The amount of blood loss tolerated by the patient  
Humans have apron. how many liters of blood ? and whats the max u can lose ?   6.5L, no more then 3 liters can be lost  
External hemorrhage : Most soft tissue trauma is accompanied by ___ hemorrhage and is not life threatening , but can carry serious risks of patient morbidity and disfigurement   mild  
_____ Hemorrhage that can be deadly because you CANT see it   Internal  
Internal Hemorage : can result from   Blunt or penetrating trauma , Acute or Chronic medical illness  
Internal bleeding that can cause hemodynamic instability usually occurs in one of four body cavities:   Chest, Abdomen, Pelvis, Peritoneum(stomach)  
How is internal hemorrhage found ?   Though a diagnostic test  
6 Clinically important forms of Hemorrhage ?   Skin hemorrhage, Hemopytsis, Hematemesis, Hematuria, Metrorrhagia, Melena  
________ : skin bleeding   Skin hemorrhage  
________ : Respiratory Tract bleeding   Hemoptysis  
________: Vomiting blood   Hematemesis  
________: Blood in urine   Hematuria  
________: Utero-vaginal bleeding (abnormal menstrual bleeding)   Metrorrhagia  
________: Black (deoxygenated) blood in stool or feces NOT hemorrhoids   Melena  
______ is a Big clot formation inside the blood vessels (BAD when in blood vessels)   Thrombi (blood clot)  
Lines of Zhan consists of ____ and ____ which are responsible for the shape of______   Fibrin, Platelets, Thrombus  
Virchow's triad shows what 3 factors that contribute to Thrombosis ? The factors may act independently or may combine to cause thrombus formation.   Endothelial Injury, Abnormal blood flow, Hypercoagulability  
What drug stops bleeding in dental surgery ?   Thrombrin  
What does Thrombi(blood clot) consist of ?   Fibrin mesh network, RBC, WBC, Platelets  
_____ injury is the single most important factor in formation of thrombi   Endothelial  
Injury to endothelial cells can cause ____ ____ flow and affect_____   abnormal blood, coagulability  
Abnormal blood flow (stasis or turbulence), in turn, can cause ____ injury.   endothelial  
Drug/protein given for heart and stroke patients (thrombosis)   (TPA) Tissue Plasminogen Activator  
(TPA) Tissue Plasminogen Activator is a ____/____ that is released from _____ cells of ____ _____ which cleaves the _____ and _____ the clot   drug/protein, endothelial, Blood vessels, dissolves  
According to the AHA (american heart association) for CARDIAC patients TPA has to be given with in ____ hours of the event. (heart attack)   6 hours  
According to the AHA (american heart association) for STROKE patients TPA has to be given with in ____ hours of the event. (stroke)   3 hours  
Carotid & cerebral arteries, Aorta, Heart valve, varicose veins & coronary arteries are all common sites of ?   Thrombus formation  
Can thrombi be in the arteries and in the veins ?   Yes, Atrial and venous thrombi  
What are the possible Fates of thrombi ?   Lysis by TPA, organization (not often), Recanalization, Embolism  
Free moving mass (clot) carried from one anatomic site to another via..blood   Emobli or Embolis , (chunk of thrombi that broke off and traveled somewhere else  
The worst type of clot formation, called widow maker, can die in sleep, acts very quickly , consists of calcified clots.   Saddle Embolus  
SADDLE EMBOLUS Location: Pathogenesis:   Location: Pulmonary Artery Pathogenesis: cuts down blood supply to the heart  
Infraction is   Necrosis ( death of tissue)  
2 types of infracts   White & Red  
Type of infract that has a (pale) off red appearance usually found in the heart ?   White infract  
Typeof infract that has a hemmorrhagic appearance "dark red" usually found in intestine ?   Red Infract  
The fate of infarcts depends on their____ site, the type of cells forming the tissue, circulatory status of the organism, extent of necrosis,   anatomic  


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