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DNA Replication

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DNA synthesis   DNA Replication  
RNA synthesis   Transcription  
Protein synthesis   Translation  
Gene expression proceeds from DNA --> RNA --> Protein   Basic Dogma of Biology  
In prokaryotes replication occurs in the   Cytoplasm  
IN eukaryotes replication occurs in the ... during ...   Nucleus, S phase  
Non-dividing cells are blocked in ... and do not progress into ...   G0 phase, S phase  
The requirments of DNA replication are   DNA POlymerase, Mg++, Template, Primer, dNTPs  
The directioin the DNA replication occurs is   5' to 3'  
For each A of the template strand, a T is added to the new strand, and each G is matched with a C   Complimentary  
3' to 5' exonuclease activity removes mismatched nucleotides   Proofreading  
Replication proceeds in both directions form central origins of replications   Bidirectional  
Sequneces where DNA replication beins. A central origin of replication   Ori  
The lagging strand is synthesized as short stretches   Discontinuous  
One strand of a daughter chromosomes is newly synthesized, the other templated strand is inherited intact from the parental chromosome`   Semiconservative  
The enzyme that catalyzed polymerization of dNTPs into DNA   DNA Polymerase (Pol #)  
This polymerase is located in the nucleus, its function is leading strand synthesis, it can process >100,000 bp, it is able to proofread, it uses an RNA primer   Pol δ  
This polymerase is located in the nucleus, its funciton is lagging strand synthesis, it can process ~ 180 bp, it is not able to proofread, it uses an RNA primer   Pol α  
This polymerase is found in the nucleus, its function is filling in gaps for repair, it can process ~20 bp, it is unable to proofread, it does not use an RNA primer   Pol β  
This polymerase is found in the mitochondria, its function is synthesis of both strands, it can process > 8,300 bp, its is able to proofread, it does not use an RNA primere   Pol γ  
What cofactor is required for DNA polymerase activity   Mg++  
To synthesize a new strand, DNA polymerase must read a preexisting strand known as the   Template  
The bulding blocks of DNA. All four are required for replication   Deoxyribonucleotidess (dNTPs)  
This is a free hydroxyl at the 3' position of the terminal nucleotide of a previously existing strand.   Primer  
The short discontinuous stretches synthesized in the correct 5'-3' direction on the lagging strand   Okazaki fragments  
A region of a eukaryotic chromosome that is replicated as a unit, from one central ori   Replicon  
An enzyme that unwinds DNA. ONe of the first factors to bind an oir, where it serves to open the double helix so the DNA polymerase can replicate the strands. It becomes part of the replication apparatus, so it serves in extension as well as initiation.   Helicase  
Factors that stabilize single stranded DNA by preventing it from winding back inot a soube helix   Single Stranded Binding Proteins  
A cluster of factors assebled around helicase to replicate DNA.   DNA Replication Apparatus  
The components of the DNA replication apparatus are   Helicase, Pol δ, Pol α, β Clamp, and Primase  
The ring like protein that wraps around DNA to stabilize the association of th ereplication apparatus. It is required for Pol δ processivity. Without it, the Pol δ only replicates short oligonucleotides   β clamp  
As the replication apparatus proceeds, this strand is continously synthesized in the normal 5' to 3' direction.   Leading Strand  
As the replication apparatus proceeds, this strand is discontinously synthesized as short stretches called Okazaki Fragments   Lagging Strand  
This enzyme binds to unwound laggin strand template and transcribes a short stretch of RNA. This RNA serves as a primer, providing the 3' OH group required by Pol α.   Primase  
This enzyme uses the RNA primer to synthesize an Okazaki fragment of th elagging strand.   Pol α  
This enzyme digest any RNA. In replication, it serves to remove the lagging strand primers.   RNAase  
In replicatioin,mm it fills the gaps left after the RNA primers are removed.   Pol β  
This enzyme binds any free 3' hydroxyls and 5' pohosphates of DNA. In replication, it seals the nicks between the Okazaki fragments left by Pol β   DNA ligase  
This serves to restore the DNA to the proper level os supercoiling during replication   Topoisomerase  
The eynzyme that fills in the overhanging gap that on a chromosome that cannot be filled in by a DNA polymerase. It is a reverse transcriptase. It not only fills in the gap but also extends the length of the telomeres.   Telomerase  


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Created by: mhaynes