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DNA Replication

DNA synthesis DNA Replication
RNA synthesis Transcription
Protein synthesis Translation
Gene expression proceeds from DNA --> RNA --> Protein Basic Dogma of Biology
In prokaryotes replication occurs in the Cytoplasm
IN eukaryotes replication occurs in the ... during ... Nucleus, S phase
Non-dividing cells are blocked in ... and do not progress into ... G0 phase, S phase
The requirments of DNA replication are DNA POlymerase, Mg++, Template, Primer, dNTPs
The directioin the DNA replication occurs is 5' to 3'
For each A of the template strand, a T is added to the new strand, and each G is matched with a C Complimentary
3' to 5' exonuclease activity removes mismatched nucleotides Proofreading
Replication proceeds in both directions form central origins of replications Bidirectional
Sequneces where DNA replication beins. A central origin of replication Ori
The lagging strand is synthesized as short stretches Discontinuous
One strand of a daughter chromosomes is newly synthesized, the other templated strand is inherited intact from the parental chromosome` Semiconservative
The enzyme that catalyzed polymerization of dNTPs into DNA DNA Polymerase (Pol #)
This polymerase is located in the nucleus, its function is leading strand synthesis, it can process >100,000 bp, it is able to proofread, it uses an RNA primer Pol δ
This polymerase is located in the nucleus, its funciton is lagging strand synthesis, it can process ~ 180 bp, it is not able to proofread, it uses an RNA primer Pol α
This polymerase is found in the nucleus, its function is filling in gaps for repair, it can process ~20 bp, it is unable to proofread, it does not use an RNA primer Pol β
This polymerase is found in the mitochondria, its function is synthesis of both strands, it can process > 8,300 bp, its is able to proofread, it does not use an RNA primere Pol γ
What cofactor is required for DNA polymerase activity Mg++
To synthesize a new strand, DNA polymerase must read a preexisting strand known as the Template
The bulding blocks of DNA. All four are required for replication Deoxyribonucleotidess (dNTPs)
This is a free hydroxyl at the 3' position of the terminal nucleotide of a previously existing strand. Primer
The short discontinuous stretches synthesized in the correct 5'-3' direction on the lagging strand Okazaki fragments
A region of a eukaryotic chromosome that is replicated as a unit, from one central ori Replicon
An enzyme that unwinds DNA. ONe of the first factors to bind an oir, where it serves to open the double helix so the DNA polymerase can replicate the strands. It becomes part of the replication apparatus, so it serves in extension as well as initiation. Helicase
Factors that stabilize single stranded DNA by preventing it from winding back inot a soube helix Single Stranded Binding Proteins
A cluster of factors assebled around helicase to replicate DNA. DNA Replication Apparatus
The components of the DNA replication apparatus are Helicase, Pol δ, Pol α, β Clamp, and Primase
The ring like protein that wraps around DNA to stabilize the association of th ereplication apparatus. It is required for Pol δ processivity. Without it, the Pol δ only replicates short oligonucleotides β clamp
As the replication apparatus proceeds, this strand is continously synthesized in the normal 5' to 3' direction. Leading Strand
As the replication apparatus proceeds, this strand is discontinously synthesized as short stretches called Okazaki Fragments Lagging Strand
This enzyme binds to unwound laggin strand template and transcribes a short stretch of RNA. This RNA serves as a primer, providing the 3' OH group required by Pol α. Primase
This enzyme uses the RNA primer to synthesize an Okazaki fragment of th elagging strand. Pol α
This enzyme digest any RNA. In replication, it serves to remove the lagging strand primers. RNAase
In replicatioin,mm it fills the gaps left after the RNA primers are removed. Pol β
This enzyme binds any free 3' hydroxyls and 5' pohosphates of DNA. In replication, it seals the nicks between the Okazaki fragments left by Pol β DNA ligase
This serves to restore the DNA to the proper level os supercoiling during replication Topoisomerase
The eynzyme that fills in the overhanging gap that on a chromosome that cannot be filled in by a DNA polymerase. It is a reverse transcriptase. It not only fills in the gap but also extends the length of the telomeres. Telomerase
Created by: mhaynes