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Anatomy 12-13

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Blood is composed of what three things?   Cells, fluids, and chemicals  
Function of blood:   to transport substances and maintain a stable environment  
Blood hematocrit:   45% cells and 55% plasma  
RBC =   erythrocyte  
Biconcave disks that contain one-third oxygen carrying hemoglobin by volume   red blood cells  
oxygen + hemoglobin =   bright red oxyhemoglobin  
darker, deoxygenated blood   deoxyhemoglobin  
Red blood cells discard their _____ during development   nucleas  
red blood cells cannot produce _____   proteins  
RBC count for males   4.6 - 6.2 million  
RBC count for females   4.2 - 5.4 million  
Where are RBCs produced in the fetus?   yolk sac, liver, and splen  
Where are RBCs produced after birth?   red bone marrow  
RBC lifespan   120 days approx  
What maintains the number of RBCs?   a negative feedback system involving erythropoietin  
Needed for DNA synthesis   B12 and folic acid  
Needed for hemoglobin sythesis   iron  
A deficiency in RBC or quantity of hemoglobin   anemia  
RBCs become damaged over time by passing through _____   capillaries  
________ in the liver and spleen phagocytize damaged red blood cells   macrophages  
Hemoglobin from the decomposed red blood cells is converted into ____ and ____   heme / globin  
WBCs are formed from ____   hemocytoblasts  
5 types of leukocytes (hint: NEBML)   Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes  
Function of WBC   protection  
normal WBC count   5,000-10,000  
Can be used to help pinpoint the nature of an illness   differential WBC count  
Occurs after an infection when excess numbers of leukocytes are present   leukocytosis  
When there are too few WBCs   leukopenia  
Group of leukocytes with granules present in their cytoplasm when stained   granulocytes  
Red-staining fine cytoplasmic granules and a multi-lobed nucleus   neutrophils  
Neutrophils percentage   54%- 62%  
Function of neutrophils   phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and some viruses  
Squeezing between cells in blood vessel walls   diapedesis  
Have course granules that stain deep blue and have bilobed nucleus   eosinophils  
Eosinophils percentage:   1%-3%  
Function of eosinophils   Moderate allergic reactions, defend against certain parasites  
Have fewer granules that stain deep blue   basophils  
Basophil percentage   less than 1%  
Function of basophil   to produce chemicals that increase blood flow to damaged tissues and promote inflammation responses  
Lack granules in cytoplasm   agranulocytes  
Largest blood cells that have oval shaped nuclei   Monocytes  
monocyte percentage:   3%-9%  
Function of monocyte   phagocytize bacteria and cellular debris  
Long-lived and have a large, spherical nucleaus   lymphocyte  
Lymphocyte percentage   25-33%  
function of lymphocyte   involved in immunity responses  
platelets AKA   thrombocytes  
platelets are fragments of   megakaryocytes  
Platelets repair damaged vessels by ______ to broken edges   adhering  
Average platelet count   130,000-360,000  
clear, straw-colored fluid portion of blood   plasma  
Plasma is mostly ______   water  
Function of plasma   Transport of nutrients and gases, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, maintains acid base balance  
maintains the correct osmotic pressure of the plasma   albumin  
transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, some are a type of antibody   globulin  
play an important role in blood clotting process   clotting proteins  
regulate and control physiological function   hormones  
stoppage of bleeding   hemostasis  
First step of hemostasis   blood vessel spasm  
Second step of hemostasis   platelet plug formation  
Third step of hemostasis   blood coagulation  
Abnormal clot in vessel   thrombus  
dislodged clot   embolus  
Clumping of RBCs following transfusion   agglutination  
special proteins found on the surface of cells   antigen  
Special protein in the blood plasma that interact with specific antigen   antibody  
Type A   Antigen: A / Antibody: anti-B  
Type B   Antigen: B / Antibody: anti-A  
Type AB   Antigen: both / Antibody: neither  
Type O   Antigen: neither / Antibody: both  
Named after rhesus monkey   RH blood type  
If the RH surface protein is present then...   the blood type is positive  
If the RH surface protein is NOT present, then...   the blood type is negative  
develops in rh-positive fetuses of rh-negative mothers   erythroblastosis fetalis  
Consists of the heart, vessels, capillaries, and veins   Cardiovascular system  
Function of CV system   Supplying oxygen and nutrients and removing waste  
hollow, cone-shaped, muscular pump within the thoracic cavity   heart  
The heart lies in the _______   mediastinum  
Comprised of a tough outer layer of connective tissue and a more delicate double later sac around the heart   pericardium  
inner layer that covers heart directly   visceral pericardium (epicardium)  
tough outer layer portion of pericardium   parietal pericardium  
The space between the two pericardia is filled with ____________   serous fluid  
Outermost layer of the heart that consists of connective tissue and contains blood and lymph capillaries   epicardium  
Middle layer of the heart that consists of cardiac muscle and is the thickest layer of the heart wall   Myocardium  
Inner layer of the heart that is smooth and made up of connective tissue and epithelium   endocardium  
Divides the chambers of the heart   septum  
Upper chambers that receive blood returning to the heart   atria  
Lower chambers that pump blood and are thicker   ventricles  
A mass of merging fibers that act as a unit is called a functional _________   synctium  
Specialized mass of of cardiac muscle that generates impulses for the heartbeat   SA node  
Impulses spread next to the atrial ________, it contracts, and impulses travel to the junctional fibers leading to the ___________ node located in the septum   synctium / atrioventricular  
__________ fibers are small, allowing the atria to contract before the impulse spreads rapidly over the ventricles   junctional  
Branches of the AV bundle give rise to ______ fibers leading to papillary muscles. These fibers stimulate contraction of the papillary muscles at the same time the ventricles contract   Purkinje  
The first wave, the P wave, corresponds to the _____ of the atria   depolarization  
The ____ complex corresponds to the depolarization of ventricles and hides the repolarization of atria   QRS  
The T waves end the ECG pattern and correspond to ventrical _______   repolarization  
The SA node is innervated by branches of the _______ and _______ divisions, so the CNS controls the heart rate   sympathetic and parasympathetic  
Sympathetic ____ impulses   speed up  
parasympathetic ________ heart rate   slow down  
The cardiac control center of the _____ _______ maintains balance between the two autonomic divisions of the nervous system in response to messages from barareceptors   medulla oblongata  
Detect changes in blood pressure   barareceptors  
Impulses from the _____ and _____ may also influence heart rate, as well as temperature and concentrations of certain iions   cerebrum and hypothalamus  
Strong, elastic vessels adapted for carrying high-pressure blood   arteries  
arteries divide into _____   arterioles  
Provide support and attachment for the heart valves and fibers and keep the tissue from dilating   rings of dense connective tissue  
Alternate pathways for blood if one is to become blocked   anastomoses  
Cardiac veins drain blood from the heart muscle and carry it to the _____ ______   coronary sinus  
atria beating in unison   atrial systole  
ventricles rest   diastole  
Contraction of both ventricles   ventricular systole  
smooth muscle of an artery   tunica media  
connective tissue of an artery   tunica externa  
When arteries shrink as directed by sympathetic impulses   vasoconstriction  
When impulses are inhibited and arteries widen   vasodilation  
smallest vessels consisting of only a layer of endothelium through which substances are exchanged with tissue cells   capillaries  
Areas with a great deal of metabolic activity have ______ _______ of capillaries   higher densities  
Can regulate the amount of blood entering a capillary bed and are controlled by oxygen concentration in the area   Precapillary sphincters  
Why do plasma proteins remain in the blood?   Because of their larger size  
Drives the passage of fluids and very small molecules out of capillaries   hydrostatic pressure  
Collect excess tissue fluid and return it to circulation   lymphatic vessels  
Force of blood against the inner walls of blood vessels   blood pressure  
Factors that influence blood pressure   heart action, blood volume, resistance to flow, and blood viscosity  


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