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Anatomy 12-13

Blood is composed of what three things? Cells, fluids, and chemicals
Function of blood: to transport substances and maintain a stable environment
Blood hematocrit: 45% cells and 55% plasma
RBC = erythrocyte
Biconcave disks that contain one-third oxygen carrying hemoglobin by volume red blood cells
oxygen + hemoglobin = bright red oxyhemoglobin
darker, deoxygenated blood deoxyhemoglobin
Red blood cells discard their _____ during development nucleas
red blood cells cannot produce _____ proteins
RBC count for males 4.6 - 6.2 million
RBC count for females 4.2 - 5.4 million
Where are RBCs produced in the fetus? yolk sac, liver, and splen
Where are RBCs produced after birth? red bone marrow
RBC lifespan 120 days approx
What maintains the number of RBCs? a negative feedback system involving erythropoietin
Needed for DNA synthesis B12 and folic acid
Needed for hemoglobin sythesis iron
A deficiency in RBC or quantity of hemoglobin anemia
RBCs become damaged over time by passing through _____ capillaries
________ in the liver and spleen phagocytize damaged red blood cells macrophages
Hemoglobin from the decomposed red blood cells is converted into ____ and ____ heme / globin
WBCs are formed from ____ hemocytoblasts
5 types of leukocytes (hint: NEBML) Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes
Function of WBC protection
normal WBC count 5,000-10,000
Can be used to help pinpoint the nature of an illness differential WBC count
Occurs after an infection when excess numbers of leukocytes are present leukocytosis
When there are too few WBCs leukopenia
Group of leukocytes with granules present in their cytoplasm when stained granulocytes
Red-staining fine cytoplasmic granules and a multi-lobed nucleus neutrophils
Neutrophils percentage 54%- 62%
Function of neutrophils phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and some viruses
Squeezing between cells in blood vessel walls diapedesis
Have course granules that stain deep blue and have bilobed nucleus eosinophils
Eosinophils percentage: 1%-3%
Function of eosinophils Moderate allergic reactions, defend against certain parasites
Have fewer granules that stain deep blue basophils
Basophil percentage less than 1%
Function of basophil to produce chemicals that increase blood flow to damaged tissues and promote inflammation responses
Lack granules in cytoplasm agranulocytes
Largest blood cells that have oval shaped nuclei Monocytes
monocyte percentage: 3%-9%
Function of monocyte phagocytize bacteria and cellular debris
Long-lived and have a large, spherical nucleaus lymphocyte
Lymphocyte percentage 25-33%
function of lymphocyte involved in immunity responses
platelets AKA thrombocytes
platelets are fragments of megakaryocytes
Platelets repair damaged vessels by ______ to broken edges adhering
Average platelet count 130,000-360,000
clear, straw-colored fluid portion of blood plasma
Plasma is mostly ______ water
Function of plasma Transport of nutrients and gases, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, maintains acid base balance
maintains the correct osmotic pressure of the plasma albumin
transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, some are a type of antibody globulin
play an important role in blood clotting process clotting proteins
regulate and control physiological function hormones
stoppage of bleeding hemostasis
First step of hemostasis blood vessel spasm
Second step of hemostasis platelet plug formation
Third step of hemostasis blood coagulation
Abnormal clot in vessel thrombus
dislodged clot embolus
Clumping of RBCs following transfusion agglutination
special proteins found on the surface of cells antigen
Special protein in the blood plasma that interact with specific antigen antibody
Type A Antigen: A / Antibody: anti-B
Type B Antigen: B / Antibody: anti-A
Type AB Antigen: both / Antibody: neither
Type O Antigen: neither / Antibody: both
Named after rhesus monkey RH blood type
If the RH surface protein is present then... the blood type is positive
If the RH surface protein is NOT present, then... the blood type is negative
develops in rh-positive fetuses of rh-negative mothers erythroblastosis fetalis
Consists of the heart, vessels, capillaries, and veins Cardiovascular system
Function of CV system Supplying oxygen and nutrients and removing waste
hollow, cone-shaped, muscular pump within the thoracic cavity heart
The heart lies in the _______ mediastinum
Comprised of a tough outer layer of connective tissue and a more delicate double later sac around the heart pericardium
inner layer that covers heart directly visceral pericardium (epicardium)
tough outer layer portion of pericardium parietal pericardium
The space between the two pericardia is filled with ____________ serous fluid
Outermost layer of the heart that consists of connective tissue and contains blood and lymph capillaries epicardium
Middle layer of the heart that consists of cardiac muscle and is the thickest layer of the heart wall Myocardium
Inner layer of the heart that is smooth and made up of connective tissue and epithelium endocardium
Divides the chambers of the heart septum
Upper chambers that receive blood returning to the heart atria
Lower chambers that pump blood and are thicker ventricles
A mass of merging fibers that act as a unit is called a functional _________ synctium
Specialized mass of of cardiac muscle that generates impulses for the heartbeat SA node
Impulses spread next to the atrial ________, it contracts, and impulses travel to the junctional fibers leading to the ___________ node located in the septum synctium / atrioventricular
__________ fibers are small, allowing the atria to contract before the impulse spreads rapidly over the ventricles junctional
Branches of the AV bundle give rise to ______ fibers leading to papillary muscles. These fibers stimulate contraction of the papillary muscles at the same time the ventricles contract Purkinje
The first wave, the P wave, corresponds to the _____ of the atria depolarization
The ____ complex corresponds to the depolarization of ventricles and hides the repolarization of atria QRS
The T waves end the ECG pattern and correspond to ventrical _______ repolarization
The SA node is innervated by branches of the _______ and _______ divisions, so the CNS controls the heart rate sympathetic and parasympathetic
Sympathetic ____ impulses speed up
parasympathetic ________ heart rate slow down
The cardiac control center of the _____ _______ maintains balance between the two autonomic divisions of the nervous system in response to messages from barareceptors medulla oblongata
Detect changes in blood pressure barareceptors
Impulses from the _____ and _____ may also influence heart rate, as well as temperature and concentrations of certain iions cerebrum and hypothalamus
Strong, elastic vessels adapted for carrying high-pressure blood arteries
arteries divide into _____ arterioles
Provide support and attachment for the heart valves and fibers and keep the tissue from dilating rings of dense connective tissue
Alternate pathways for blood if one is to become blocked anastomoses
Cardiac veins drain blood from the heart muscle and carry it to the _____ ______ coronary sinus
atria beating in unison atrial systole
ventricles rest diastole
Contraction of both ventricles ventricular systole
smooth muscle of an artery tunica media
connective tissue of an artery tunica externa
When arteries shrink as directed by sympathetic impulses vasoconstriction
When impulses are inhibited and arteries widen vasodilation
smallest vessels consisting of only a layer of endothelium through which substances are exchanged with tissue cells capillaries
Areas with a great deal of metabolic activity have ______ _______ of capillaries higher densities
Can regulate the amount of blood entering a capillary bed and are controlled by oxygen concentration in the area Precapillary sphincters
Why do plasma proteins remain in the blood? Because of their larger size
Drives the passage of fluids and very small molecules out of capillaries hydrostatic pressure
Collect excess tissue fluid and return it to circulation lymphatic vessels
Force of blood against the inner walls of blood vessels blood pressure
Factors that influence blood pressure heart action, blood volume, resistance to flow, and blood viscosity
Created by: DarkPeriwinkle
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