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Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Gonads are what   separate in male and females for most vertebrates.agnatha sometimes hermaphrodites  
Early development of gonads   from genital ridge(hypomere).gonads are indifferent(capable of being M or F).chromosomes and hormones cause differentiation of glands and ducts into M or F structures.  
Wolffian duct   male structures,more easily related to kidneys,turns into vas deferenes,sperm duct,ductus daferenes  
Mullerian duct   Female structures,turns into female reproductive organs  
Testes   x2.produce male gametes and hormones.single testes in agnatha,fish,few lizards.Smaller than ovaries except in mammals.scrotum only in mammals(inguninal canal).  
Why do the ovaries tend to be bigger(except in mammals)?   because the yolk is so necessary and important therefore it needs a large amount of space.  
Why are mammal testes bigger?   because of the increased sperm competition.  
Sperm Ducts consist of what?   mesonepheric ducts(archinephric ducts),vas deferenes(ductus daferenes). no sperm ducts in cyclostomes because they go from coelom out genital pore.  
mesonephric ducts or archinephric duct do what?   carry both sperm and urine(fish)  
vas deferenes or ductus daferenes do what?   carry only sperm.in recent bony fish and amniotes this is an acessory sperm duct  
Ovary   x2.product female gametes and female hormones.one ovary in agnatha,some bony fish,some sharks,some crocs,MOST birds retain left ovary,platypus and some bats. most have cavities(except mammals)  
Ovarian ducts is from what embryonic duct?   from mullerian duct.  
Functions of ovarian ducts   trans port eggs.coat eggs(nidamental gland(shell gland)).hold egg or young.expelling egg or young,receive sperm,storing sperm(guppies,shickens,rattlesnakes,bats).  
Agnatha ovarian ducts   they don't have any  
cartilaginous ovarian ducts   oviduct with shell gland.may be viviparous(live birth), have uterus and cloaca.  
oviparous means what?   egg laying  
bony fish ovarian ducts   duct continuous with ovary cavity  
amphibians ovarian ducts   glands secrete jelly  
reptile,birds,monotreme ovarian ducts   one or two oviducts,albumen gland(shell gland),shell leathery or brittle.  
mammal ovarian ducts   oviducts,one or more uteri,one vagina in placentials, two or 3 in marsupials  
What are the three types of uteri?   duplex,simple,intermediate  
duplex uteri   two cavities(rabbit,opossum)  
simple uteri   one cavity(primates)  
intermediate uteri   two horns(bicornuate) and body of a uterus(cat,pig,cow)  
Cloaca is the what?   common opening for intestine,urinary ductus,genital ducts  
Agnatha and Actinopterygii cloaca   absent;may be secondary loss  
Cloaca in all species except agnatha,actinopterygii,mammals   it is present  
Reptiles,Birds,monotremes cloaca   partially subdivideed by urorectal fold(intestinal region,urinary+genital region).  
Cloaca of Marsupials and placental mammals   completely partitioned therefore no cloaca.but they have a rectum and a urogenital sinus that is subdivided in primates and some rodents.  
Intromittent organs   some dont have any(most birds,some fish and amphibians).they can include claspers,hemipenes,penis  
claspers   on anal fins or pelvic fins.found in sharks and guppy  
hemipenes   found in lizards and snakes  
Penis   corocs and turtles,some birds(duck and ostirch),all mammals,marsupials have forked ones.some have a baculum  
baculum   penis bone, found in insecivores,bats,rodents,carnivors,some primates.  


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