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Comparative anatomy


Gonads are what separate in male and females for most vertebrates.agnatha sometimes hermaphrodites
Early development of gonads from genital ridge(hypomere).gonads are indifferent(capable of being M or F).chromosomes and hormones cause differentiation of glands and ducts into M or F structures.
Wolffian duct male structures,more easily related to kidneys,turns into vas deferenes,sperm duct,ductus daferenes
Mullerian duct Female structures,turns into female reproductive organs
Testes x2.produce male gametes and hormones.single testes in agnatha,fish,few lizards.Smaller than ovaries except in mammals.scrotum only in mammals(inguninal canal).
Why do the ovaries tend to be bigger(except in mammals)? because the yolk is so necessary and important therefore it needs a large amount of space.
Why are mammal testes bigger? because of the increased sperm competition.
Sperm Ducts consist of what? mesonepheric ducts(archinephric ducts),vas deferenes(ductus daferenes). no sperm ducts in cyclostomes because they go from coelom out genital pore.
mesonephric ducts or archinephric duct do what? carry both sperm and urine(fish)
vas deferenes or ductus daferenes do what? carry only recent bony fish and amniotes this is an acessory sperm duct
Ovary x2.product female gametes and female ovary in agnatha,some bony fish,some sharks,some crocs,MOST birds retain left ovary,platypus and some bats. most have cavities(except mammals)
Ovarian ducts is from what embryonic duct? from mullerian duct.
Functions of ovarian ducts trans port eggs.coat eggs(nidamental gland(shell gland)).hold egg or young.expelling egg or young,receive sperm,storing sperm(guppies,shickens,rattlesnakes,bats).
Agnatha ovarian ducts they don't have any
cartilaginous ovarian ducts oviduct with shell gland.may be viviparous(live birth), have uterus and cloaca.
oviparous means what? egg laying
bony fish ovarian ducts duct continuous with ovary cavity
amphibians ovarian ducts glands secrete jelly
reptile,birds,monotreme ovarian ducts one or two oviducts,albumen gland(shell gland),shell leathery or brittle.
mammal ovarian ducts oviducts,one or more uteri,one vagina in placentials, two or 3 in marsupials
What are the three types of uteri? duplex,simple,intermediate
duplex uteri two cavities(rabbit,opossum)
simple uteri one cavity(primates)
intermediate uteri two horns(bicornuate) and body of a uterus(cat,pig,cow)
Cloaca is the what? common opening for intestine,urinary ductus,genital ducts
Agnatha and Actinopterygii cloaca absent;may be secondary loss
Cloaca in all species except agnatha,actinopterygii,mammals it is present
Reptiles,Birds,monotremes cloaca partially subdivideed by urorectal fold(intestinal region,urinary+genital region).
Cloaca of Marsupials and placental mammals completely partitioned therefore no cloaca.but they have a rectum and a urogenital sinus that is subdivided in primates and some rodents.
Intromittent organs some dont have any(most birds,some fish and amphibians).they can include claspers,hemipenes,penis
claspers on anal fins or pelvic fins.found in sharks and guppy
hemipenes found in lizards and snakes
Penis corocs and turtles,some birds(duck and ostirch),all mammals,marsupials have forked ones.some have a baculum
baculum penis bone, found in insecivores,bats,rodents,carnivors,some primates.
Created by: ejohnson17
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