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Anatomy

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integumentary system   consists of the skin and its derivatives (nails, hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands)  
integument   the skin covering the body (is the body's largest organ and accounts for 7-8% of body weight),  
cutaneous membrane   another word for integument  
dermatology   the scientific study and treatment of the integument  
main function of the integument   acts as a barrier to the outside world and protects internal body structures  
all the functions of the integument   protection, prevention of water loss, metabolic regulation, secretion and absorption, immune function, regulation of body temperature, sensory reception  
how the integument acts as protection   cushions organs and protects from bumps, chemicals, UV radiation  
how the integument prevents water loss   water is unable to exit the skin unless it is secreted by sweat glands  
how the integument acts in metabolic regulation   produces vitamin D for calcium absorption  
how the integument acts in immune function   initiates immune response against pathogens  
how the integument regulates body temperature   body temperature is influenced by capillaries and sweat glands  
how the integument acts in sensory reception   keeps us aware of conditions at the body's surface, detects heat, cold, touch, pressure and vibration  
three major regions of the integument   epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis  
epidermis   the superficial region of the integument (keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium) (aka the epithelium of the integument, consists of strata)  
dermis   middle region of the integument (primarily dense irregular connective tissue)  
hypodermis   deepest region of the integument (subcutaneous layer and is mostly adipose tissue) (closely involved with structure and function of the skin)  
composition of the epithelium of the integument (epidermis)   (from deep to superficial) stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum  
stratum corneum (details)   first three layers with living keratinocytes and the most superficial two layers have dead keratinocytes  
stratum basale (aka basal layer)   deepest epidermal layer, separates the epidermis from the dermis, and is occupied by three cell types (keratinocytes, melanocytes, tactile cells)  
keratinocytes   most abundant cells in epidermis and regenerate new cells to replace old cells shed at the surface (name derived from the synthesis of keratin)  
keratin   protein that strengthens the epidermis  
melanocytes   produce and store pigment (melanin)  
melanin   responsible for the darker tones of skin  
tactile cells (aka Merkel cells)   sensitive to touch (nerve endings are stimulated)  
stratum spinosum (aka spiny layer)   several layers of polygonal keratinocytes that begin to develop into specialized, non-dividing keratinocytes (named for spiny appearance under microscrope)  
epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhans cells)   immune cells that help initiate immune response and are responsive to pathogens and epidermal cancer cells, often present in stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum  
stratum granulosum (granular layer)   three to five layers of keratinocytes, first layer of keratinization  
keratinization   process where keratinocytes fill with keratin, fully keratinized cell dead but structurally sound, and process not complete until more superficial layers  
stratum lucidum (transulent layer/ clear layer)   two to three layers of keratinocytes found only on thick skin within the palms and soles  
stratum corneum (hornlike layer)   20 to 30 layers of dead, interlocking keratinized cells, most superficial layer of epidermis, surface unsuitable for the growth of microorganisms  
migration of keratinocytes   originate in the stratum basale, migrate through strata to stratum corneum over two weeks (undergoing structural changes), remain in stratum corneum another 2 weeks and then are shed  
variations in the epidermis occur because of...   variations between the different body regions, variations between individuals, and variations in thickness, color and skin markings  
freckles and nevus (mole)   concentrations of melanocytes (mutations can affect that skin and indicate cancer)  
thick skin   on the palms of hands, soles of feet, and surfaces of fingers and toes, has all five layers of epidermal strata (includes stratum lucidum), has sweat glands, has no hair follicles or sebaceous glands  
thin skin   covers most of the body, lacks a stratum lucidum (only four layers), has sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands  
coloration from hemoglobin   hemoglobin is bright red upon binding oxygen and gives blood vessels in dermis a reddish tint that is seen more easily in fair skinned individual or if blood vessels dilate  
hemoglobin   an oxygen binding compound present in red blood cells  
coloration from melanin   occurs in black, brown, tan, yellow-brown shades of skin, although all people have the same number of melanocytes, the amount of melanin in skin varies according to heredity and light exposure (UV light stimulates melanin production),  
melanin   pigment produced and stored in melanocytes (activity and color produced by melanocytes varies among individuals - darker skinned people produce more and darker colored melanin)  
nevus   mole, harmless overgrowth of melanin forming cells (rarely may become malignant - monitor for changes suggesting malignancy)  
ridge patterns of the skin   complex arches and whorls on fingers, palms, soles and toes (formed from large folds and valleys of dermis and epidermis) that help increase friction in contact (each individual has a unique pattern of friction ridges - allows for personal identification)  
dermis   second major layer of the skin and is composed of strong, flexible connective tissue (dense irregular) that is richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves  
two layers of the dermis   papillary layer and reticular layer  
components of the dermis   primarily collage with elastic and reticular fibers, cells serving an immune function, blood vessels, sweat glands, subcutaneous glands, hair follicles, nail roots, and sensory nerve endings  
papillary layer of the dermis   superficial region of the dermis that is directly adjacent to the epidermis, has dermal papillae (give it its name) that connect with epidermal ridges to interlock and increase the area of contact between layers  
epidermal ridges   projections of the epidermis  
dermal papillae   projections of the dermis that contain capillaries and sensory nerve endings  
reticular layer of the dermis   deeper, major portion of the dermis that extends from papillary layer to hypodermis (subcutaneous) layer and consists primarily of dense irregular connective tissue  
dermal nerve fibers   sensory nerve fibers and motor nerve fibers  
sensory nerve fibers   detect pressure, vibration and cold  
motor nerve fibers   control blood flow and gland secretions  
innervation   to supply (an organ, body part) with nerves, or to stimulate (nerve, muscle, organ) to action  
dermal blood vessels   supply nutrients to epidermis and dermis and play an important role in body temperature and blood pressure regulation (vasoconstriction, vasodilation)  
vasoconstriction   blood vessel diameters narrowed, occur when trying to conserve heat, and look pale when exposed to cold  
vasodilation   blood vessel diameter increased, occurs when needing to loose heat, why nipple may become flushed during exercise  
hypodermis (subcutaneous) layer   not considered part of the integument, consists of areolar and adipose connective tissue, pads and protects the body, acts as energy reservoir, and provides thermal insulation  
derivatives of the epidermis   nails, hair and hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands  
nails   scalelike modification of the epidermis that is made of hard, dead keratinized cells and is equivalent to the hooves or claws of other mammals (used as tools)  
hair is found almost everywhere on the body except   the hands and palmar surface of the fingers, the sides and soles of the feet and toes, the lips  
hair composition   composed of keratinized cells growing from hair follices  
pilus   a single hair (shape of a slender filament)  
types of hair   velus and terminal  
velus (fine hair)   primary human hair, found on upper and lower limbs and female faces  
terminal hair (coarse, pigmented, longer)   on scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, men's beards, and during puberty replaces velus hair in axillary and pubic regions  
three zones along the length of a hair   hair bulb, root, and shaft  
hair bulb   swelling at the base where hair originates in the dermis (consist of dead epithelial cells)  
root   potion of hair deep in skin surface and both root (consist of dead epithelial cells)  
shaft   portion of hair beyond skin surface, and is the only region containing living epithelial cells  
functions of hair   protection, heat retention, sensory reception, and chemical signal dispersal  
hair as protection   protects scalp from sunburn and injury, hair within nostrils traps particles, and eyelashes protect eyes  
hair as heat retention   prevents loss of heat from scalp to air  
hair as sensory reception   has associated tactile receptors  
hair as disperser of chemical signal   secrete pheromones by specific sweat glands onto hairs in axillary and pubic regions  
pheromones   chemical signals involved in attracting sexual partners  
alopecia   thinning of hair  
hair loss   may be normal scalp loss of 10 to 100 hairs a day, but could be a result of drugs, dietary factors, radiation, high fever, stress or aging  
male pattern baldness   loss of hair from only some regions of the scalp and is the result of a combination of genetic and hormonal factors (baldness allele is dominant in males and recessive in females)  
two types of sweat glands   merocrine glands and apocrine glands  
merocrine gland   most numerous, discharges their secretions onto skin surface (i.e. sweat), and are a major function of thermoregulation  
thermoregulation   regulation of body temperature by fluid evaporation  
sweat   composed of 99% water and 1% other chemicals and includes electrolytes, metabolites and waste products  
apocrine gland   discharge their secretion into hair follicles, confined to axillary, anal, and genital area, and produce a special kind of sweat (murky odor - attracts a mate, and fatty substance in the sweat)  
sebaceous glands (oil glands)   produce oily secretions called sebum, occur over entire body (except palms and soles), and are activated during puberty  
sebum   acts as a lubricant for skin and hair, has bactericidal properties, and discharge into a hair follicle  


   


 
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