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Integumentary System


integumentary system consists of the skin and its derivatives (nails, hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands)
integument the skin covering the body (is the body's largest organ and accounts for 7-8% of body weight),
cutaneous membrane another word for integument
dermatology the scientific study and treatment of the integument
main function of the integument acts as a barrier to the outside world and protects internal body structures
all the functions of the integument protection, prevention of water loss, metabolic regulation, secretion and absorption, immune function, regulation of body temperature, sensory reception
how the integument acts as protection cushions organs and protects from bumps, chemicals, UV radiation
how the integument prevents water loss water is unable to exit the skin unless it is secreted by sweat glands
how the integument acts in metabolic regulation produces vitamin D for calcium absorption
how the integument acts in immune function initiates immune response against pathogens
how the integument regulates body temperature body temperature is influenced by capillaries and sweat glands
how the integument acts in sensory reception keeps us aware of conditions at the body's surface, detects heat, cold, touch, pressure and vibration
three major regions of the integument epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
epidermis the superficial region of the integument (keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium) (aka the epithelium of the integument, consists of strata)
dermis middle region of the integument (primarily dense irregular connective tissue)
hypodermis deepest region of the integument (subcutaneous layer and is mostly adipose tissue) (closely involved with structure and function of the skin)
composition of the epithelium of the integument (epidermis) (from deep to superficial) stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
stratum corneum (details) first three layers with living keratinocytes and the most superficial two layers have dead keratinocytes
stratum basale (aka basal layer) deepest epidermal layer, separates the epidermis from the dermis, and is occupied by three cell types (keratinocytes, melanocytes, tactile cells)
keratinocytes most abundant cells in epidermis and regenerate new cells to replace old cells shed at the surface (name derived from the synthesis of keratin)
keratin protein that strengthens the epidermis
melanocytes produce and store pigment (melanin)
melanin responsible for the darker tones of skin
tactile cells (aka Merkel cells) sensitive to touch (nerve endings are stimulated)
stratum spinosum (aka spiny layer) several layers of polygonal keratinocytes that begin to develop into specialized, non-dividing keratinocytes (named for spiny appearance under microscrope)
epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhans cells) immune cells that help initiate immune response and are responsive to pathogens and epidermal cancer cells, often present in stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum
stratum granulosum (granular layer) three to five layers of keratinocytes, first layer of keratinization
keratinization process where keratinocytes fill with keratin, fully keratinized cell dead but structurally sound, and process not complete until more superficial layers
stratum lucidum (transulent layer/ clear layer) two to three layers of keratinocytes found only on thick skin within the palms and soles
stratum corneum (hornlike layer) 20 to 30 layers of dead, interlocking keratinized cells, most superficial layer of epidermis, surface unsuitable for the growth of microorganisms
migration of keratinocytes originate in the stratum basale, migrate through strata to stratum corneum over two weeks (undergoing structural changes), remain in stratum corneum another 2 weeks and then are shed
variations in the epidermis occur because of... variations between the different body regions, variations between individuals, and variations in thickness, color and skin markings
freckles and nevus (mole) concentrations of melanocytes (mutations can affect that skin and indicate cancer)
thick skin on the palms of hands, soles of feet, and surfaces of fingers and toes, has all five layers of epidermal strata (includes stratum lucidum), has sweat glands, has no hair follicles or sebaceous glands
thin skin covers most of the body, lacks a stratum lucidum (only four layers), has sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands
coloration from hemoglobin hemoglobin is bright red upon binding oxygen and gives blood vessels in dermis a reddish tint that is seen more easily in fair skinned individual or if blood vessels dilate
hemoglobin an oxygen binding compound present in red blood cells
coloration from melanin occurs in black, brown, tan, yellow-brown shades of skin, although all people have the same number of melanocytes, the amount of melanin in skin varies according to heredity and light exposure (UV light stimulates melanin production),
melanin pigment produced and stored in melanocytes (activity and color produced by melanocytes varies among individuals - darker skinned people produce more and darker colored melanin)
nevus mole, harmless overgrowth of melanin forming cells (rarely may become malignant - monitor for changes suggesting malignancy)
ridge patterns of the skin complex arches and whorls on fingers, palms, soles and toes (formed from large folds and valleys of dermis and epidermis) that help increase friction in contact (each individual has a unique pattern of friction ridges - allows for personal identification)
dermis second major layer of the skin and is composed of strong, flexible connective tissue (dense irregular) that is richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves
two layers of the dermis papillary layer and reticular layer
components of the dermis primarily collage with elastic and reticular fibers, cells serving an immune function, blood vessels, sweat glands, subcutaneous glands, hair follicles, nail roots, and sensory nerve endings
papillary layer of the dermis superficial region of the dermis that is directly adjacent to the epidermis, has dermal papillae (give it its name) that connect with epidermal ridges to interlock and increase the area of contact between layers
epidermal ridges projections of the epidermis
dermal papillae projections of the dermis that contain capillaries and sensory nerve endings
reticular layer of the dermis deeper, major portion of the dermis that extends from papillary layer to hypodermis (subcutaneous) layer and consists primarily of dense irregular connective tissue
dermal nerve fibers sensory nerve fibers and motor nerve fibers
sensory nerve fibers detect pressure, vibration and cold
motor nerve fibers control blood flow and gland secretions
innervation to supply (an organ, body part) with nerves, or to stimulate (nerve, muscle, organ) to action
dermal blood vessels supply nutrients to epidermis and dermis and play an important role in body temperature and blood pressure regulation (vasoconstriction, vasodilation)
vasoconstriction blood vessel diameters narrowed, occur when trying to conserve heat, and look pale when exposed to cold
vasodilation blood vessel diameter increased, occurs when needing to loose heat, why nipple may become flushed during exercise
hypodermis (subcutaneous) layer not considered part of the integument, consists of areolar and adipose connective tissue, pads and protects the body, acts as energy reservoir, and provides thermal insulation
derivatives of the epidermis nails, hair and hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands
nails scalelike modification of the epidermis that is made of hard, dead keratinized cells and is equivalent to the hooves or claws of other mammals (used as tools)
hair is found almost everywhere on the body except the hands and palmar surface of the fingers, the sides and soles of the feet and toes, the lips
hair composition composed of keratinized cells growing from hair follices
pilus a single hair (shape of a slender filament)
types of hair velus and terminal
velus (fine hair) primary human hair, found on upper and lower limbs and female faces
terminal hair (coarse, pigmented, longer) on scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, men's beards, and during puberty replaces velus hair in axillary and pubic regions
three zones along the length of a hair hair bulb, root, and shaft
hair bulb swelling at the base where hair originates in the dermis (consist of dead epithelial cells)
root potion of hair deep in skin surface and both root (consist of dead epithelial cells)
shaft portion of hair beyond skin surface, and is the only region containing living epithelial cells
functions of hair protection, heat retention, sensory reception, and chemical signal dispersal
hair as protection protects scalp from sunburn and injury, hair within nostrils traps particles, and eyelashes protect eyes
hair as heat retention prevents loss of heat from scalp to air
hair as sensory reception has associated tactile receptors
hair as disperser of chemical signal secrete pheromones by specific sweat glands onto hairs in axillary and pubic regions
pheromones chemical signals involved in attracting sexual partners
alopecia thinning of hair
hair loss may be normal scalp loss of 10 to 100 hairs a day, but could be a result of drugs, dietary factors, radiation, high fever, stress or aging
male pattern baldness loss of hair from only some regions of the scalp and is the result of a combination of genetic and hormonal factors (baldness allele is dominant in males and recessive in females)
two types of sweat glands merocrine glands and apocrine glands
merocrine gland most numerous, discharges their secretions onto skin surface (i.e. sweat), and are a major function of thermoregulation
thermoregulation regulation of body temperature by fluid evaporation
sweat composed of 99% water and 1% other chemicals and includes electrolytes, metabolites and waste products
apocrine gland discharge their secretion into hair follicles, confined to axillary, anal, and genital area, and produce a special kind of sweat (murky odor - attracts a mate, and fatty substance in the sweat)
sebaceous glands (oil glands) produce oily secretions called sebum, occur over entire body (except palms and soles), and are activated during puberty
sebum acts as a lubricant for skin and hair, has bactericidal properties, and discharge into a hair follicle
Created by: Nicolekr
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