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Urinary System CCC PN 105

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most important homeostatic organ in body   kidneys  
where are kidneys   under back muscles just behind pareital peritoneum, just above waist  
which kidney is a little lower   right kidney  
which kidney is a little higher   left kidney  
what protects the kidneys   ribs, fat, and back muscles  
outer layer of kidneys   cortex  
inner portion of kidneys   medulla  
triangular division of medulla in kidney   pyramids  
narrow, innermost end of pyramid in kidney   papilla  
expansion of upper end of ureter inside kidney   pelvis  
division of renal pelvis   calyces  
microscopic units of kidneys   nephrons  
parts of nephron renal corpuscle   bowmans capsule, glomerulus  
parts of nephron renal tubule   proximal and distal convuluted tubules, loop of henle, collecting tubule  
more than ____ total blood pumped by heart each minute enters the kidneys   20%  
functions of kidneys   excrete toxins and nitrogenous (urea, ammonia) wastes, regulate chemical levels in blood, maintain water balance  
kidneys help regulate blood pressure by   secretion of renin  
hormone that constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure   renin  
absence of urine   anuria  
small amounts of urine   oliguria  
large amounts of urine   polyuria  
normal urine output each day   1500-1600 mL  
normal urine output each hour   60 mL  
processes to form urine   filtration, reabsorption, secretion  
where does urine formation occur   in nephron  
process continually goes on in renal corpuscle   filtration  
movement of substances out of renal tubules   reabsorption  
movement of substances into urine   secretion  
anti-diuretic hormone, controls urinary volume by decreasing it   ADH  
narrow, long tubes with expanded upper end inside kidney and lined with mucous membrane   ureters  
ureters are located in   renal pelvis  
function of ureter   drain urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder  
elastic, greatly expandable muscular organ lined with mucous membrane   urinary bladder  
function of urinary bladder   storage of urine, voiding of urine  
why is trigone portion of urinary bladder different   has no rugae  
narrow tube from urinary bladder to exterior, lined with mucous membrane   urethra  
opening of urethra to exterior   urinary meatus  
function of urethra   passage of urine from bladder to exterior, also moves semen in men  
passage of urine from body   micturition  
types of regulatory sphincters   internal and external urethral  
involuntary regulatory sphincter   internal urethral sphincter  
voluntary regulatory sphincter   external urethral sphincter  
function of regulatory sphincters   seals off bladder for urine accumulation  
amount of urine an average adult can hold   600 mL  
permits urine storage with minimal increase in pressure   bladder wall  
urine produced but not voided   urinary retention  
no urine produced but bladder is normal   urinary suppression  
urine is voided involuntarily, may be caused by injury, stroke; urine retention can also cause   incontinence  
bladder infection, buildup of bacteria can spread and cause kidney infection   cystitis  
interstitial cystitis, need for frequent urination; amounts voided are small and extreme urgency and pain are common   overactive bladder  


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Created by: cmp12345