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Anatomy Exam 1 dr. l

Number of bones in the Human Body? 206 Bones
Functions of the skeletal system support, movement, protection, mineral reservoir, hemopoiesis
Axial Bones Skull, Vertebral Column, and ribs 80 bones 29 skull bones
Appendicular skeleton Limbs
Foramen Opening in bone, allowing nerves to pass through
Fossa a ditch or trench, concavity in bone
facet smooth bony surface, coated with articular cartilage
process growing out
tubercle Small prominence
condyle knuc knuckle like
trochanter the bony landmarl; means runner
meatus passage
Ethmoid Bone perpendicular plate, cribriform plate, olfactory foraminae, cristi galli, turbinates, chonchae
Deviated Septum misalignment in vomer and perpendicular plate
Temporal Bone 3 portions: squamous, mastoid, petrosal
Fontanels of Skull Soft spots, 6 spots
Hyoid Bone u shaped single bone at base of tongue, supports tongue musculature
Vertebral Column Cervial, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
Cervical 7 bones, including Atlas and Axis, Kyphosis, needs to be supported in a new born
Axis includes dens allows for rotation of skull
Thoracic Middle, 12, Lordosis
Lumbar Lowest, most weight bearing, 5, scoliosis
Intervertebral Disc Function cushion, made of annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus
Herniated Disc protrusion of the nucleus pulposus, think jelly donut, most common in lumbar region
Body of Vertebra Largest part, region where disc sits
Pedicles of Vertebra Located between the body and the articulating facets
Laminae of Vertebra Located between the transverse process and the spinous process
Vertebral Foramen Hole, allowing the spinal cord to pass through
Seven processes of the Vertebral bones 2 transverse, 1 spinous, and 4 articular facets
Sternum manubrium, body, xiphoid process
Ribs ten attached, two floating
Upper extremity pectoral girdle, arm and hand
pectoral girdle scapulae and clavicles
Lower extremity pelvis girdle, leg, petella, foot bones
pelvic girdle sacrum, coxal bones
Father of Medicine and the Father of Anatomy Hippocrates
Bone that merges with the perpendicular plate to form the bony nasal septum vomer
squamosal suture joins the temporal bone to the _____ bone parietal
term that describes the soft spots on a fetus skill fontanel
provide the term for a lateral curvature of the vertebral column scoliosis
provide the alternate term for vertebra know as C1 atlas
term for the caudal portion of the sternum, calcifies with age and can break during CPR xiphoid process
portion of a vertebra that joins the spinous process to the transverse process lamina
paired clavicles and scapulae are the _____ girdle pectoral
condition in which a person as more digits on their hand polydactyly
carpal bone that is most frquently broken, often by bracing oneself during fall scaphoid
Provide the term for the socket of the ball and socket joint of the hip acetabulum
CT wrapper around all living bones that enables growth in width and facilitates the healing process of a broken bone periosteum
tubular space within the diaphysis of a long bone. This space contains yellow bone marrow medullary cavity
cartilage caps that are located on the ends of bones that are involved in synovial joints where a moderate to high degree of movement is allowed articular cartilage
specific tissue fills the spaces within spongy bone red bone marrow
alternate term for osteon the functional unit of bone tissue haversian system
communication by outstretched cytoplasmic processes that make contact between neighboring bone cells canuliculi
bone matrix consists of collagenous fibers and a hydrated calcium phosphate substance ______ hydroxyapetitc
vitamin is essential for proper absorption of calcium from food we eat as the food passes through the intestines D
term for the sac like cushions that reduce frictions between tendons and ligaments as they stretch over bone bursae
which bony structure becomes inflamed and swollen if a person develops osgood schlaters disease tibial tuberosity
study of abnormal disseased tissues/structures pathology
identify the protein that fills the dead cells in the upper most layer of our epidermis. gives a water proofing to the skin and helps resist abrasion keratin
identify the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the epidermis of our skin and nervous system ectoderm
pigment producing cells of our epidermis melanocytes
common term for decubitus ulcers bed sores
most dangerous form of skin cancer due to this forms high propensity for metastasis melanoma
term for connective tissue structures that attach one muscle to another muscle the linea alba is an example aponenrosu
condition that develops if muscle tissue is growing faster that the surrounding deep fascia that surrounds the muscle can expand compartment syndrome
symbol of medicine, typically portrayed as a wings staff with two serpents intertwined along the length of the staff staff of hermes
Dorsal posterior (dorsal fin)
farther from the mid line distal
nape of the neck nuchal...back of the neck greater and lesser nuchal lines
anatomical term refers to the groin region inguinal
bony structures of the ethmoid bone cristi galli, olfactory foramen, cribriform plate, middle turbinate, perpendicular plate
lacrimal glad resides in a depression termed the lacrimal fossa, what bone does this reside on frontal bone
temporal bone consists of three portions petrosal squamosal and mastoidal
part of the temporal bone that houses the structures of the middle and inner ear petrosal
All sinuses have passages that connect between the sinus cavity and the nasal cavity t/f True
secondary plate that seperates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity is composed of portions of ____ bones and developmentally forms _____ palatine and maxillary
Vertebral formula 7/12/5/5/4
Herniated discs frequently occur in the ___ lumbar region
Injury to shoulder such that the articulation between the clavicle and scapula is damaged is termed... shoulder seperation
Carpal bones articulates with the metacarpal of the thumb in a manner such that apposition of the thumb to the palm is possible, enabling a grasping hand trapezium
medical discipline that specializes exclusively with the foot and ankle podiatric medicine
foot formula 7/5/14
type of bone comprises the epiphyseal plate hyaline cartilage
bone cells responsible for the breakdown of bone tissue ostoclasts
bone growth occurs on which side of the growth plate diaphyseal side
synovial joint enables circumduction ball and socket
articulation provides an example of gliding joint capitate:hamate
articulation provides example of synchondrosis ribs:sternum
diagnostic imaging modality uses sound waves as a means to visualize internal structures sonography
tissue forms scar tissue dense irregular connective tissue
multi layered epithelium with the upper most cells flattened is a form of stratified squamous epithelium
Tissues that composes tendons and ligament dense regular CT
Multi-cellular glands with ducts exocrine
Multi- cellular glands without ducts endocrine
Term refers to active connective tissue cells of the general CT types fibroblasts
Type of cartilage is the toughest form and found in pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs fibrocartilage
skin affliction is caused by fungus ringworm
Allows visualization of structures without surgeruy medical imaging
2-D image on film x-rays
high-frequency sounds waves emitted by hand held device ultrasound (sonography)
What is displayed on a video monitor sonogram
High energy magnetic field, pulse of radiowaves used to generate an image on video monitor MRI
moving x-ray beam, image produced in cross section through body computed tomography
radiopaque material injected into blood vessels, useful for scanning the thyroid nuclear medicine technology
substance that emits positively charged particles is injected into body, negatively charged electrons in tissues releases gamma rays positron emission tomography PET
Two body cavities Thoracic, abdominopelvic
Abdominopelvic cavity subdivided into the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
Thoracic cavity subdivided 2 pleural cavities and 1 pericardial cavity
Serous membranes that produce a watery lubricating fluid Linings
Lines the thoracic cavity pleura
Lines the abdominopelvic cavity peritoneum
Covers the organs visceral
Lines the inner body wall parietal
Groups of cells having a common function Tissues
The study of tissues Histology
Study of diease and abnormal tissues Pathology
Sample of living tissue for microscopic study Biopsy
epidermis of skin, nervous system ectoderm
tissue makes most structures mesoderm
lining of digestive system and respiratory systems endoderm
Tissue provides covering/lining on/in body (closely packed; tight junctions) epithelial
Tissue that connects tissues/organs in the body connective tissue
A contractile tissue Muscle Tissue
Tissue that performs electrical communication Nerve
Epithelial Classification: squamous flat cells
Epithelial Classification: cuboidal cube shaped cells
Epithelial Classification: columnar tall narrow cells
Epithelial Classification: Transitional multi layered cells having capacity to stretch or relax
Epithelial Classification: simple single layer
Epithelial Classification: stratifies two or more layers
Epithelial Classification: pseudostratified single layer giving false impression of stratification
Ductless, produce/secret hormones that are transported by blood throughout body endocrine
ducts, secretions transported to surface of epithelium via ducts exocrine
Exocrine Glands : unicellular single celled glands (goblet cells)
Exocrine Glands: Multicellular glands Branched/unbranched ducts tubular or acinar (flask like) Bind
Characteristics of CT Bind support strengthen insulate compartmentalize protect
Tough, wavy, non elastic linear Collagenous fibers
elastic linear Elastic Fibers
thin branches Reticular Fibers
Loose Connective Tissues has area of space
Dense regular CT collagen fibers in parallel bundles, flexible but not stretchable
Dense Irregular CT Collagen fibers are irregularly arranged, interwoven, resist tension from any direction
Scar Tissue Dense irregular CT, fills space vacated by damaged tissue that does not replace itself
Reticular CT Thin branched fibers that form a fiber network within certain organs, provide infrastructure
Elastic CT Parallel bundles of elastic fibers form stretchable ligaments
Adipose tissue Large vacuole filled with lipid
Hyaline Cartilage has perichondrium for growth, no blood vessels or nerves
Elastic Cartilage help maintain shape after deformations, has perichondrium
Fibrocartilage does not have a perichondrium, strongest type of cartilage
Muscle tissue Contractile
Skeletal Muscle long cylinders, nuclei on outside, striated, voluntary
Cardiac Muscle branched muscles, one central nuclei, involuntary striated
Smooth Muscle spindle shaped cells, single central nuclei, involuntary
Nerve Tissue made of Nerve Cells, and Neuroglial Cells
Nerve Cells (neurons) conduct electrical impulses
Neuroglial cells non conducting
Nerve structure: cell body contains the nucleus and most of the organelles
Nerve structure: Dendrites branched, receive stimuli
Nerve structure: Axon long single process, transmission
Created by: ltay6



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