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Chapter thirteen

review words nervous system, eye, and ear

QuestionAnswer
arachon/o spider
cerebr/o cerebrum; brain
crani/o cranium; skull
dendr/o branching; dendrite
encephal/o brain
gli/o neuroglia; nerve cell
hydr/o water; fluid
myel/o spinal cord (also bone marrow)
neur/o nerve
olig/o few; diminished
quardr/i four
thec/o sheath
thromb/o clot
vascul/o blood vessels
ventricul/o ventricle
The largest section of the brain that controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movement? cerebrum
What attaches the brain to the brain stem? cerebellum
The area of the brain that provides nerve conduction pathways to and from the brain? midbrain
What is pons literally means "bridge"; nerve cells cross from one side of the brain to control the opposite side of the body
medulla oblongata lowest section of the brain stem
thalamus relays nerve impulses to and from the cerebral cortex and the sense organs of the body
hypothalamus thermostat of the body
corpus callosum structure that connects the two hemispheres of the brain
olfactory nerve transmits sensory impulses necessary for the sense of smell
optic nerve tranmits sonsory impluses necessary for sight
oculomotor nerve transmits impluses necessary for eye movement
trochlear nerve transmits impulses necessary for eye movement and eye muscle sensations
trigeminal nerve transmits impulses necessary for chewing and facial sensations
abducens nerve transmits impulses necessary to turn the eyeball outward or away from the misline
facial nerve transmits impulses to the scalp, forehead,eyelids, cheek, jaw, and other facial muscles
acoustic nerve transmits impulses necessary for hearing and balance, also called the auditory nerve
glossopharyngeal nerve transmits necessary for taste, some sensations from the viscera, secretions from some glands
vagus nerve transmits impulses necessary for speech, swallowing, and some head and shoulder movements
hypoglossal nerve tranmits impulses necessary for swallowing and moving the tongue
Alzheimer disease progressive, extremely debilitating deterioration of an individual's intellectual functioning
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) severe weakening and wasting of various muscle groups due to loss of motor neuron function in the brain stem and spinal cord
anencephaly congenital ansence of the brain and, in some cases, the spinal cord
ataxia lacking muscular coordination, escpecially voluntary muscle movement
bell palsy weakness or paralysis of the muscles of one side of the face
cephalagia pain in the ; headache
cerebral aneurysm dilation of a cerebral artery that might put pressure on cerebral tissue and interfere with cerebral function
cerebral hemorrhage bursting forth of blood into cerebral tissue due to rupture of cerebral vessel
cerebral palsy lack of voluntary muscle control and/or coordination caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain at or near the time of birth
cerebral thrombosis presence of an athrosclerotic clot in a cerebral blood vessel that causes death of a specific portion of brain tissue
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke
chiari malformation structural defect characterized by portions of the cerebellum extending doenward through the foramen magnum
concussion violent, jarring, shaking, or other blunt non repenetrating injury to the brain
contusion small venous hemorrhages in the brain caused by the brain striking the cranium
dementia progessive, irreversible deterioration of memory, judgement, and other thought processes
encephalitis inflammation of the brain
encephalomalacia softening of the brain
encephalopathy any disease of the brain
epidural hematoma a swelling or mass of blood between the cranium and dura mata that applies pressure to the brain tissue in the affected area
epilepsy recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the central nervous system
intractable epilepsy resistant to treatment with medication
glimoa malignant tumor of neuroglial cells
guillain- barre syndrome acute inflammation of several nerves f the peripheral nervous system characterized by symmetrical pain and weakness of the extremities
hemiparesis partial paralysis of one side of the body
hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body
huntington disease genetic disorder characterized by progressive, irreversible degeneration of cerebral neurons that results in uncontrolled movements
hydrocephalus abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain
meningioma slow growth tumor
meningitis infection or inflammation of the membranes covering the brain or spinal cord
meningocele herniation of the meninges through a hole in the skull or vertebral column
meningomyelocele herniation of the spinal cord and menings through a defect in the vertral column
multiple sclerosis degenerative inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that attacks the myelin sheath of the spinal cord and brain
myelomalacia abnormal softening of the spinal cord
neuralgia severe sharp pain in the nerve or along the course of a nerve
neuritis inflammation of nerve or nerves
neuroblastoma highly malignant tumor composed of cells derived from embryonic neural tissue, usualy occurs in young children
neuropathy any disease of the nerves
paraplegia paralysis of the lower half of the body, including the legs
parkinson disease chronic, progressive nervous disease characterized by tremor, muscular weakness, and rigidity
poliomyelitis infectious viral disease that affects the motor (efferent) neurons of the brain and spinal cord, resulting in muscle paralysis and wasting
polyneuritis inflammation of many nerves or nerve fibers
postpolio syndrome slow prograssive weakening of muscles that occurs in approximately 25% of poliomyelitis survivors 20-30 years after the initial illness
quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs, usually resulting from spinal cord injury
reye syndrome acute encephalopathy following an acute viral infection
sciatica severe pain along the course of the sciatic nerve, from the back of the thich and down the inside of the leg
seizure excessive irregular electrical activity of the central nervous system associated with epilepsy
shingles; herpes zoster acute viral infection characterized by an inflammation of a spinal or cranial nerve pathway that prodices painful vesicular eruptions on the skin
subdural hematoma collection of blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid membrane, usually the results of a closed head injury
syncope loss of conciousness due to a lack of blood supply to the brain; fainting
transient ischemic temporary interference of interruption of the blood supply to a portion of the brain
trigeminal neuralgia; tic douloureaux severe pain that radiates along the fifth crainial nerve adn usually affects on side of the head or face
cerebrospinal fuild analysis laboratory analysis of cerebraospinal fuild
cranitomy incision into the skull to provide access to the brain or to relieve intracranial pressure
echoencephalography process of recording a picture of the structures of the brain using sound waves
electroencephalogram graphic record of the electrical activity of the brain
electroencephalography (EEG) process of recording the electrical activity of the brain
evoked potential studies electroencephalographic test that measures the brain activity in response to various types of electrical stimulation
lumbar puncture insertion of a needlw into the subaracnoid space, usually between the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae, to withdraw cerebrospinal fluid
myelography process of recording an x-ray picture of the spinal cord and spinal cavity
myelogram x-ray record of the spinal cord and spinal cavity
neuroctomy surgical excision of a nerve of nerve fibers
pneumoencephalography process of recording an x-ray pictre of the ventricles and other fuild cilld cavities of the central nervous system; air and another type of gas is ised as the contrast medium
romberg test technique used to assess and evualate cerebellar functioin and balance
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) pain-relief treatment during which electrical impulses are delivered through the skin to nerve endings near the pain site; the impulses prevent the transmission of pain signals to the brain
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ANS autonomic nervous system
CNS central nervous system
CP cerebral palsy
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CVA cerebrovascular accident
EEG electroencephalography
HD huntington disease
ICP intracranial pressure
LP lumbar puncture
MS multiple sclerosis
PEG pneumoencephalography
PNS peripheral nervous system
PPS postpolio syndrom
SNS somatic nervous system
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
TIA transient ischemic attack
aque/o watery
blast/o immature
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjuntiva
corne/o cornea
dacry/o tears
dacrycyst/o tear sac
dipl/o double
fund/o fundus; base
glauc/o sliver; gray
ir/o; irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears
ocul/o eye
ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye; vision
palpebr/o eyelid
phac/o; phak/o lens
phot/o light
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera; hard
uve/o uvea
vitre/o glassy; jelly-like
ect- outside; out
en-; eso- in;inward
ex- out; outward
presby- aging; old
-metry to measure
-opia vision
-tropia; -tropin to turn; turning
astigmatism a refractive error causing light rays to be focused irregulary on the retina to an abnormally shaped cornea
blepharitis inflammation of eyelids
blepharoptosis drooping of an eyelid
cataract progressive cloudiness of the crystalline lens
chalazion cyst or nodule on the eyelid as a result of an obstructed meibomian gland
color blindness inability to recognize or "see" certain colors
conjunctivits inflammation of the conjunctiva; commly called pinkeye
dacryocystitis inflammation of the tear sac or lacrimal sac
detached retina seperation of the retina from the choroid layer of the eye
diabetic retinopathy disease of the retina and its cappillaries caused by long-standing and usually poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
diplopia double vision; may be in on or both eyes
ectropion turning outward of the eyelash margins, usually affects the lower eyelid
entropion turning inward of the eyelash margins, usually affects the lower eyelid
esotropia inward turning of the eyes; also known as convergent strabismus; commonly called cross-eyed
exophthalmia abonromal protrusion of the eyeball(s)
exotropia outward turning of the eyes; also known as divergent strabismus; commly called walleye
glaucoma increased intraocular pressure
hordeolum baterical infection of an eyelash follicle or sebaceuos gland; commonly called a sty
hyperopia impaired vision of close objuects; light rays focus beyond the retina; commonly called farsightedness
iritis inflammation on the iris
keratitis inflammation of the cornea
myopia impaired vision of distant objects; light rays focus in front of the retima; commonly called nearsightedness
nyctalopia impaired or inadequate vision at night; commonly called night blindness
nystagmus involuntary movements of the eye(s), which my or may not be apparent to the individual
ophthamia neonatorum inflammation of the conjunctiva of a newborn caused by irritaion, a blocked tear duct, or a bacterial or viral infection contracted as the infant passes through the birth canal
photophobia abnormal sensitivity to light
photoretinitis damage or inflammation of the retina due to excessive exposure to light
presbyopia impaired vision due to again
pterygium irregular growth and thickening of the conjunctiva on the nasal side of the cornea
retinitis pigmentosa degenerative disease of the retina withour inflammation that results in defective night vision and a decreased field of vision
retinoblastoma malignant tumor of the retina
sclerokeratitis inflammation of the sclera and cornea
strabismus inability of the eyes to gaze in the direction because of weakness of the eye muscles
trachoma chronic, contagious form od conjunctivitis characterized by hypertrophy of the conjunctiva
uveitis inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid
blepharoplasty surgical repair of plastic surgery of the eyelid
corneal transplant surgical transplantation of a donar cornea into the eye of a recipient
cryoextraction of the lens removal of the crystalline lens with a cooling probe
enucleation of the eye removal of the eye from the orbit
extracapsular cataract extraction removal of the crystalline lens and the anterior segment of the lens capsule
funduscopy examination of the posterior inner part of the eye, known as the fundus, using an ophthalmoscope
intraocular lens implant surgical implantation of a crystalline lens; usually done at the same time as a cataract extraction
iridectomy excision of a section of the iris
keratoplasty surgical repair of the cornea characterized by the excision of the opaque section of the cornea
laser in situ keratomileusis procedure to correct vision problems, especially myopia, n=by removing tissue and permanently changing the shape of the cornea
ophthalmoscopy examination of the interior of the eye
phacoemulsifaction breaking the crystalline lens or its cataract into timy particles that can be removed by suction or aspiration
photorefractive keratectmony surgical removal of corneal surface cells to correct or redice myopia
radial keratotomy spoke-like incisions into the cornea to correct nearsightedness
retinal photocoagulation laser surgery of the retina to correct retinal detachment and prevent hemorrhage of retinal blood vessels
scleral buckling repair of retinal detachment by resecting of folding in the sclera
trabeculectomy surgical excision of a portion of corneal and scleral tissue to decrease intraocular pressure
trabeculoplasty surgical creation of a permanent fistula to drain excess aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye in order to relieve the intraocular pressure associsted with glaucoma
vitrectomy surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor
ECCE extracapsular cataract extraction
EOM extraocular movement
ICCE intracapsular cataract extraction
IOL intraocular lens
IOP intraocular pressure
LASIK laser in situ keratomileusis
OD right eye (oculus dexter)
OS left eye (oculus sinister)
OU each eye (oculus uterque)
PERRLA pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation
PRK photorefracrtive keratectomy
REM rapid eye movement
RK radial keratotomy
VA visual acuity
VF visual field
acoust/o hearing
audi/o hearing; sound
cochle/o cochlea
labyrinth/o ineer ear labyrinth
laryng/o larynx
myc/o fungus
myring/o eardrum; tympanic membrane
ot/o ear
rhin/o nose
staped/o stapes; middle ear bones
tympan/o eardrum; tympanic membrane
presby- old; aging
-algia pain
-cusis; -cusia hearing
-metry to measure
-plasty surgical repair
-(r)rhea flow; discharge
acoutic neuroma benign tumor of the acoustic nerve
chlesteaoma clow groth cystic mass or tumor made up of epithelial cell debris and cholestrol
conductive deafness hearing loss caused by impaired transmission of sound waves through the middle or external ear
impacted cerumen excessive accumulation of cerumen (earwax)
labyrinthitis inflammation of infection of the labyrinth or inner ear
meniere disease chronic inner ear disease characterized by vertigo, sensorial hearing loss, and tinnitus; vomiting, and sweating may also be present
myringitis inflammation of the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
otalgia pain in the ear; earache
otitis externa inflammation of the external ear canal; commonly called swimmer's ear
otitis media infection and inflammation of the middle ear; commonly called a middle ear infection
otomycosis fungal infection of the external auditory meatus (opening)
otorrhea discharge or drainage from the ear
otosclerosis hereditary condition characterized by irregular ossification of the bones of the middle ear, especially the stpes, causing tinnitus and deafness
perforation of the tympanic membrane rupture of development of holes in the eardrum
presbycusis impaired hearing related to the aging process
sensorineural deafness loss of hearing resulting from impaired or damaged auditory nerve cells or tissue
serous otitis media middle ear infection characterized by an accumulation of serous fluid and air bubbles behind the tympanic membrane
suppurative otitis media middle ear infection characterized by an accumulation of purulent (pus-filled) fluid behind the tympanic membrane; symptoms might include dizziness and tinnitus
tinnitus ringing or tinkling sensation in the ears
tympanitis inflammation of the tympanic membrane; often associated with otitis media
vertigo sensation of spinning or dizziness, usually a result of a disturbance of equilibrium
audiogram graphic record of hearin
audiometry measuring the sense of hearing
myringoplasty syrgical repair of the tympanic membrane
myringotomy incision into the tympanic membrane
myringotomy and tubes incision into the tympanic membrane and insertion of tubes to allow drainage of fluid that might accumulate behind the eardrum
otoplasty surgical repair of one or both of the ears; usually refers to repair of the outer ear
rinne test hearing examintaion that compares bone and air conduction of sound waves using a vibrating tuning fork
stapedectomy excision of the stapes
tympanoplasty surgical repair of the tympanic membrane
tympanotomy incision in the tympanic membrane
weber test examination of auditory acuity to determine whether a hearing deficit is conductive or sensorineural
AC air conduction
AD right ear (auris dextra)
AS left ear (auris sinistra)
AU each ear (auris unitas)
BC bone conduction
BOM bilateral otitis media
EENT eyes, ears, nose, throat
ENT ears, nose, throat
TM tympanic membrane
Created by: jgordonfan2488