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Pharm Peds

A measure of a child's development (in body size or motor skill or psychological function) expressed in terms of age norms Developmental Age
Age measured by the time (years and months) that something or someone has existed; Chronolgocial Age
The delivery of therapeutic care thorugh the implementation of interventions that elimate or minimize the psychological and physical distress expereinced by childern and their families in the health care system Atraumatic Care
Requires drug manufacturers to study pediatrtic medication use and offer incentives of pediatric pharmacology research. Pediatric Research Equity Act
Why are pharmacokinetics different in the pediatric population? Differences in body compostition and organ maturity in neonates and younger infants.
The degree and rate of absorption depends on what? Childs age, heatlh status, wt, and route of admin
In neonates and infants, what happens with absorption? Less developed so must take precautions
In adolescents, what happens to absorption for ones that have poor nutrition, physical changes, and hormonal differences? Slows
The lack of the GI tract is most pronounced in ?? infants
At birth, what is the gastric pH? Alkaline
When does acidicity in GI reach adult status? At the ages of 1-3
What happend to abosoption in a high pH? It favors basic drug formulations
Why should a RN be awear of delayed gatric emptying in an infant? concentrations of serum reduces the peak medications
What feeding method has a longer GI transit times? Breastfeeding
Frequent feedings of an infant does what to transit times? The less time the food is in contact with the gastric or intestitnal lining
Irregular peristalis associates with immaturity does what? Decreases absorption
Symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea does what? Decreases absoption time
What do many meds in pediatrics cause? Diarrhea
In younger infants, why is absorption greater in the stomach and intestines? The GI surace area is greater than in adults
In which organ does the difference in anatomy affect the speed of absoption in peds? Small intestine
What does a low lipase level in peds do? Deters the absorption of lipid-soluble meds.
Because the skin is thinner and pourous in children, what does that do to absorption? Increases/Enhances
Whose skin surface is greater? Child
A larger skin surface in peds does what? Meds are more readily absorbed
The distribution of meds throughtout the body of a child is impacted by what? Body fluid composition, body tissure, protein-binding capability, and effectiveness of various barriers to med transport
How much water is in neonates adn young infants? 70%
What does a higher volume of fluid do for distribution of meds in very young? It alwasys for a lower concentration of the drug
What does a higher level of extracellular fluid do in younger pts? Increases tendency to become dehyrated and change distributeo f water-soluble meds
Why do neonates and infants require less fat souble meds? Tend to have less body fat than older children
Less fat availble for satruation equals...= Less need for meds
Neonates and infants have _________ albumin and _______ protein binding sites than older pts.= Less/Fewer
What do greater quanities of ciculating drugs caused by reduced plasma proteins do? Increase the propensity for adverse or toxic txs for peds yonger than 1
What does a high level of bilirubin in neionates do? It binds with plasma protein making sites unavailable to meds and large amount to be free drugs
Because infants' bloodbrain barriers are immature, what does this allow drugs to do? Pass easily into nervous system tissue
The metabolsim of meds in peds pts depends on? Maturation level
For childer 2 or younger hepatic nzymes are _______. Deceased
DC hepatic enzymes in peds pts causes what? Slower metabolism of meds
Children have inherently _____metabolic rates than adults. Higher
Children have _____ metabolism compared to adults Rapid
BC of higher metabolism rates in children, they may require _____meds than adults. Higher amounts
Provides that drugs admin by oral route and absorbed via the GI tract undersgo some metabolism in the hepatocytes in the liver before they are made available to the body tissues. First-pass effect
Before 9months of age, infants experience a ______ in the elimination capacity of kidneys. Reduction
Infants have low elimination capacity of kidney because of _______, ______, and ________. Decrease in renal blood flow, decreases in glomerular filtration rate, and reduction in renal tubular function.
Renal tubular function is again decrease at the onset of _______. Adolescence
____________ is needed for effective excretion of meds in peds. Water
Peds pts should be continuously monitored for _____, which could lead to toxic drug levels. Dehydration
Refers to the mechanism of action and effect of a drug on the body and includes the onset, peak, and duration of effect of a med. Pharmocodynamics
A key way to monitor peds for therapeutic levels of meds is by measuring _____and ____. Plasma and Serum drug levels
Most meds are ordered based on childes wt in ____ kilograms
Chemotherapies are prescribed based on what for peds? Body surface area
What is the equation to find ped dosages? child’s dose = m2 (body surface area)/1.73m2 x adult dose
BSA calculators are used when? When med ranges based on child’s wt are not easily accessible.
A key issue with ped med admin is confirming what? Pt Id
Med admin education for children should be ___________ developmentally appropriate
Because of tissue differences in children, the ____ route is the most predictable. IV
A group of adolescents may differ greatly, causing attention to individualize doses based on ____ or ________. Wt or body surface area
Herbal preparations are generally ____ recommended for use in children. NOT
Created by: 49009947