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Leg Muscles

Properties of Leg Muscles

Muscle PropertyDescription
Gluteus Max: origin Ilium, dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament
Gluteus Max: insertion IT tract, gluteal tuberosity of femur
Gluteus Max: Action extends thigh and assists in lateral rotation
Gluteus max: innervation inferior gluteal nerve
Gluteus medius: origin external surface of ilium between the anterior and posterior gluteal lines
Gluteus medius: insertion lateral surface of the greater trochanter of the femur
Gluteus medius: action abducts and medially rotates thigh
Gluteus medius: innervation Superior gluteal nerve
Gluteus minimus: origin external surface of ilium between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines
Gluteus minimus: insertion anterior surface of the greater trochanter of the femur
Gluteus minimus: action abducts and medially rotates thigh
Gluteus minimus: innervation Superior gluteal nerve
Piriformis: action laterally rotates extended thigh and abducts flexed thigh
Piriformis: origin anterior surface of sacrum and sacrotuberous ligament
Piriformis: insertion superior border of greater trochanter of femur
Piriformis: innervation branches of ventral rami of S1 and S2
Obturator internus: origin pelvic surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bones
obturator internus: insertion trochanteric fossa
obturator internus: action laterally rotates extended thigh and abducts flexed thigh (with piriformis)
obturator internus: innervation nerve to obturator internus
superior gemellus: origin ischial spine
superior gemellus: insertion trochanteric fossa
superior gemellus: action laterally rotates extended thigh and abducts flexed thigh (with obturator internus and piriformis)
superior gemellus: innervation nerve to obturator internus
inferior gamellus: origin ischial tuberosity
inferior gamellus: insertion trochanteric fossa
inferior gamellus: action laterally rotates extended thigh and abducts flexed thigh (with piriformis, obturator internus, and superior gamellus)
Inferior gamellus: innervation nerve to quadratus femoris
quadratus femoris: origin lateral border of ischial tuberosity
quadratus femoris: insertion middle portion of intertrochanteric crest and the area below it
quadratus femoris: action laterally rotates thigh
quadratus femoris: innervation nerve to quadratus femoris
5 muscles that act to steady the femoral head in the acetabulum piriformis, obturator internus, superior and inferior gemellus, quadratus femoris
semitendinosus: origin ischial tuberosity
semitendinosus: insertion medial surface of superior part of tibia
semitendinosus: action extend thigh (flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed; when thigh and leg are flexed, can extend trunk)
semitendinosus: innervation tibial division of sciatic nerve
semimembranosus: origin ischial tuberosity
semimembranosis: insertion posterior part of medial condyle of tibia
semimembranosis: action extend thigh (flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed; when thigh and leg are flexed, can extend trunk)
semimembranosis: innervation tibial division of sciatic nerve
biceps femoris: origin Long head: ischial tuberosity. Short head: linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur
biceps femoris: insertion lateral side of head of fibula
biceps femoris: action flexes leg and rotates it laterally when knee is flexed; extends thigh
biceps femoris: innervation Long head: tibial division of sciatic nerve. Short head: common fibular division of sciatic nerve
3 hamstring muscles semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris
pectineus: origin superior ramus of pubis
pectineus: insertion pectineal l ine of femur just inferior to lesser trochanter
pectineus: action adducts and flexes thigh, assists with medial rotation of thigh
pectineus: innervation femoral nerve
psoas major: origin sides of T12-L5 vertebrae and their discs, transverse processes of all lumbar vertebra
psoas major: action flex thigh and stabilize joint
psoas major: insertion lesser trochanter of femur
psoas major: innervation ventral rami of lumbar nerves (L1-3)
psoas minor: origin sides of T12-L1 vertebrae and discs
psoas minor: insertion pectineal line, iliopectineal eminence via iliopectineal arch
psoas minor: action flex thigh and stabilize joint (with psoas major and iliacus)
psoas minor: innervation ventral rami of lumbar nerves (L1-2)
iliacus: origin iliac crest, iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, and anterior sacroiliac ligaments
iliacus: insertion tendon of psoas major, lesser trochanter, and distal femur
iliacus: action flex thigh and stabilize joint (with psoas major and minor)
iliacus: innervation femoral nerve
3 iliopsoas muscles psoas major and minor, iliacus
tensor fascia lata: origin anterior superior iliac spine and anterior part of iliac crest
tensor fascia lata: insertion IT tract that attaches to the lateral condyle of the tibia
tensor fascia lata: action abducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh
tensor fascia lata: innervation superior gluteal nerve
sartorius: origin anterior superior iliac spine and superior part of notch inferior to it
sartorius: insertion superior part of medial surface of tibia
sartorius: action flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint; flexes leg at knee joint
sartorius: innervation femoral nerve
Muscles of quadriceps femoris rectus femoris, vastus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
Quadriceps group: insertion base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
quadriceps group: action extend leg at knee
quadriceps group: innervation femoral nerve
rectus femoris: origin anterior inferior iliac spine and ilium superior to acetabulum
rectus femoris: action extends leg at knee, steadies hip joint and helps iliopsoas flex thigh
vastus lateralis: origin greater tochanter and lateral lip of linea aspera of femur
vastus medialis: origin intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of femur
vastus intermedius: origin anterior and lateral surfaces of body of femur
adductor longus: origin body of pubis inferior to pubic crest
adductor longus: insertion middle third of linea aspera of femur
adductor longus: action adducts thigh
adductor longus: innervation obturator nerve, branch of anterior division
adductor brevis: origin body and inferior ramus of pubis
adductor brevis: insertion pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera
adductor brevis: action adducts thigh and to some extent flexes it
adductor brevis: innervation obturator nerve, branch of anterior division
adductor magnus (adductor part): origin inferior ramus of pubic ramus of ischium
adductor magnus (adductor part): insertion gluteal tuberosity, lineal aspera, medial supracondylar line
adductor magnus (adductor part): action adducts and flexes thigh
adductor magnus (adductor part): innervation obturator nerve, branches of posterior division
adductor magnus(hamstring part): origin ischial tuberosity
adductor magnus (hamstring part): insertion adductor tubercle of femur
adductor magnus (hamstring part): action adducts and extends thigh
adductor magnus (hamstring part): innervation tibial part of sciatic nerve
gracilis: origin body and inferior ramus of pubis
gracilis: insertion superior part of medial surface of tibia
gracilis; act ion adducts thigh, flexes leg, and helps rotate it medially
gracilis: innervation obturator nerve
obturator externus: origin margins of obturator foramen and obturator membrane
obturator externus: insertion trochanteric fossa of femur
obturator externus: innervation obturator nerve
obturator externus: action laterally rotates thigh; steadies head of femur in acetabulum
tibialis anterior; origin lateral condyle and superior half of lateral surface of tibia and interosseous membrane
tibialis anterior: insertion medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of first metatarsal
tibialis anterior; action dorsiflexes ankle and inverts foot
tibialis anterior: innervation deep fibular (peroneal)nerve
extensor digitorum longus: origin lateral condyle of tibia and superior 3/4 of medial surface of the fibula and interosseus membrane
extensor digitorum longus: insertion middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
extensor digitorum longus: action extends lateral 4 digits and dorsiflexes ankle
extensor digitorum longus: innervation deep fibular nerve
extensor hallucis longus: origin middle part of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
extensor hallucis longus: insertion dorsal aspect of base of distal phalynx of great toe
extensor hallucis longus: action extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle
extensor hallucis longus: innervation deep fibular nerve
fibularus (peroneus) tertius: origin inferior third of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
fibularis (peroneus) tertius: insertion dorsum of base of 5th metatarsal
fibularis (peroneus) tertius; action dorsiflexes ankle and aids in eversion of the foot
fibularis tertius: innervation deep fibular nerve
fibularus longus: origin head and superior 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula
fibularis longus: insertion base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
fibularis longus: action everts foot and weakly plantar flexes ankle
fibularis longus: innervation superficial fibular nerve
fibularis brevis: origin inferior 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula
fibularis brevis: insertion dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of base of 5th metatarsal
fibularis brevis: action everts foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle
fbularis brvis: innervation superficial fibular nerve
4 muscles of the anterior and lateral leg that are innervated by the deep fibular nerve tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, fibularis tertius
2 muscles of the anterior/ lateral leg that are innervated by the superficial fibular nerve fibularis longus and brevis
gastrocnemius:origin lateral head: lateral aspect of lateral femoral condyle. Medial Head: popliteal surface of femur superior to medial condyle
gastroc: insertion posterior surface of calcaneous via calcaneal tendon
gastroc: action plantarflexes anke when knee is extended, raises heel during walking, flexes leg at knee
gastroc: innervation tibial nerve
soleus; origin posterior aspect of head of fibula, superior 1/4 of posterior surface of fibula, soleal line, medial border of tibia
soleus: insertion posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
soleus: action plantarflexes ankle independent of knee position and steadies leg on foot
soleus: innervation tibial nerve
plantaris: origin inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur and oblique popliteal ligament
plantaris: insertion posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
plantaris: action weakly assists gastroc in plantarflexing ankle and flexing knee
plantaris: innervation tibial nerve
popliteus: origin lateral surface of lateral femoral condyle and lateral meniscus
popliteus: insertion posterior surface of tibia, superior to soleal line
popliteus: action weakly flexes knee and unlocks it
popliteus: innervation tibial nerve
flexor hallucis longus: origin inferior 2/3 of posterior surface of fibula and inferior part of interosseous membrane
flexor hallucis longus: insertion base of distal phalynx of great toe
flexor hallucis longus: action flexes great toe at all joints and weakly plantarflexes ankle; supports medial longitudinal arches of foot
flexor hallucis longus: innervation tibial nerve
flexor digitorum longus: origin medial part of post surface of tibia inferior to soleal line and by a broad tendon to fibula
flexor digitorum longus: insertion bases of distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
flexor digitorum longus: action flexes lateral 4 digits and plantarflexes ankle, supports longitudinal arches of foot
flexor digitorum longus: innervation tibial nerve
tibilais posterior: origin interosseous membrane, posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line, and posterior surface of fibula
tibialis posterior: insertion tuberosity of navicular, cuneiform, and cuboid, and bases of 2-4 metatarsals
tibialis posterior: action plantarflexes ankle and inverts foot
tibialis posterior: innervation tibial nerve
All posterior leg muscles are innervated by this tibial nerve
2 gluteal muscles innervated by the nerve to obturator intermus obturator internus, superior gemellus
2 muscles innervated by the nerve to quadratus femoris inferior gemellus, quadratus femoris
3 posterior thigh muscles semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris
Exception to the rule that all hamstring muscles are innervated by the tibial division of the sciatic nerve Short head of biceps femoris is innervated by the common fibular division of the sciatic nerve
10 anterior thigh muscles pectineus, psoas major and minor, iliacus, tensor fascia lata, sartorius, 4 quad muscles
5 medial thigh muscles adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis, obturator externus
All medial thigh muscles are innervated by this nerve obturator nerve
Anterior and lateral muscles of the leg are innervated by this nerve Fibular nerve
Nerve of posterior leg muscles tibial nerve
Created by: JillLindelow