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BIO202 - Ch 22 - Breathing - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

Intrapleural pressure (Pip) Pressure in pleural cavity - always 4mm Hg less than (negative relative to) intrapulmonary pressure (intra-alveolar).
Respiratory pressures are descrbed relative to __. atmospheric pressure (Patm) - exterted by air surrounding body.
At sea level, Patm = __ 760 mm Hg = 1 atm
What 2 forces act to pull lungs away from thorax wall & cause lung collapse? Lungs' elasticity & surface tension of alveolar fluid.
If Pip equalized w/atmospheric pressure __. immediate lung collapse is the result.
Transpulmonary pressure Ppul - Pip
The greater the __ pressure, the larger the lungs. transpulmonary
Atelectasis Lung collapse - occurs when bronchiole becomes plugged - also when air enters pleural cavity.
P1V1-P2V2 Boyle's law
Usual volume of air that enters lungs during normal inspiration. 500ml
Anytime intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul) is less than atmospheric (Ppul <Patm), ____. air rushes into lungs
Which muscles produce forced expiration? Ab oblique & transversus & internal intercostals.
The major nonelastic source of resistance to gas flow is __. friction (drag) encountered in respiratory passageways.
As thoracic volume increases, pulmonary pressure & intrapleural pressure __. decrease
The average pressure gradient during normal, quiet breathing is __ or less. 2 mm Hg
The greatest resistance to gas flow in lungs is __. in the medium-sized bronchi
At the __ gas flow stops & diffusion takes over, so no air resistance. terminal bronchioles
Inhaled irritant activate constriction of the bronchioles due to the __ NS. parasympathetic
Surfacant detergent-like comlex of lipids & proteins produced by type II alveolar cells - decreases the cohesiveness of water molecules.
IRDS - Infant respiratory distress syndrome. In babies, born & not able to keep their alveoli inflated between breaths.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Chronic lung disease - caused by inflammatory injury to respiratory zone structures due to respirator.
lung compliance How much change in lung volvume (^Vl) during breath - how stretchy lung tissue is.
The more a lung expands, the greater its __. lung compliance
Healthy people have __ lung compliance. high
pneumothorax "Collapsed lung" - air enters the pleural cavity - The cavity is normally below atmospheric pressure.
The pleural cavity is normally __ atmospheric pressure. below
Tidal volume (TV) Volume of air, about 500 ML (2 cups) that enters or leaves lungs in normal breath.
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) When forcibly inhaling - 2100 - 3200 ml of air.
expiratory reserve volume (ERV) When forcibly exhaling 1000 - 1200 ml of air.
Vital capacity (VC) Max volume of air moved in 1 cycle - 4800 man, 3800 woman
residual volume (RV) air left over in lungs after exhalation - about 1200 ml
"External" phase of respiration Move oxygen from alveoli into blood & CO2 in the opposite direction.
"Internal" phase of respiration Oxygen moves from the blood into tissues, & CO2 moves from tissues & into blood
Alveoli's respriatory membrane The wall is single layer of epithelial cells - lung capillaries hug them, this basement membrane - gas exhanges easily
The 4 respiratory volumes Tidal, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, & residual
Total lung capacity (TLC) around 6,000 ml
Spirometer Clinical measuring device for respiratory function
Minute ventilation Amount of gas that flows in or out of lungs in 1 minute - 6 L/min - exercise = 200 L/min
Nitrogen makes up __% of air & oxygen __% 79%, 21%
Dalton's Law of partial pressures Total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases
Henry's Law Gases dissolve in liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
__ is the most soluble gas in air. CO2
Hyperbaric oxygen chambers is clinical application of __ law. Henry's
Too much O2 above 2-3 atm causes __. coma & death - oxygen toxicity
Created by: Ladystorm