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Week 5


Q The first sound heard in the heart is a "lub". What is happening during this time? A The aortic/pulmonary valves are closing
Q The second heart sound heard is a "dub". What is happening during this time? A The atrioventricular valves are closing
Q There are three layers of the heart. The endocardium is on the inside and is made up of endothelium and CT, and the myocardium is the middle muscular layer. What is the outside layer, and what is it made of? A The epicardium, which is a visceral layer made up of serous pericardium
Q All the m. fibers of the heart are anchored to a fibrous skeleton. In this skeleton there are two structures known as "trigones". Where are the R/L trigones located? A The R trigone is between the ant. aspect of the AV valves, and the L is between the mitral/aortic valve
Q What structure in the heart makes up the majority of it's base? A The L atrium
Q Where does the Apex of the heart line up anatomicaly? A The apex of the heart lines up with the 5th intercostal space
Q Aside from the apex/base, what are the SURFACES of the heart? A ant = sternocostal, inf = diaphragm, L = pulmonary
Q There are surfaces of the heart, and also borders. What are the borders of the heart? A Sup = great vessels, inf = R ventricle, R = R atrium, and L = L ventricle
Q So what is the difference between a surface of the heart and a border? A The SURFACES are more along the lines of structures the heart is up against, along with the base/apex, and the BORDERS are more like actual heart structures.
Q The pulmonary/aortic valves are semilunar and arise when the embryological truncus arteriosus split in two. After the split, where do the two vessels lay in relaiton to eachother? A The aortic valve is posterior, and the pulmonary is anterior
Q The pulmonary/aortic valves both have 3 cusps, and both of them have a R/L. Which then has the ant cusp and which the pos cusp? A The pulmonary valve has the ant cusp, and the aortic valve has the posterior cusp.
Q What keeps the pulmonary/aortic valves from sticking to the vessel wall when they open? A The pulmonary/aortic sinuses
Q Where is the SA node located in the heart? A In the R atrium, where the SVC enters.
Q What is located deep to the crux of the heart, where the atria/ventricles come together on the pos aspect? Hint: IT is part of the conduction system of the heart. A The AV node
Q The thoracic sympathetic chain gives symp. stimulation to the heart. What gives it parasymp. stimulation? A VEGAS BABY
Q What is a "vena communicantes"? A 2-3 veins that wrap around an artery and communicate w/ eachother. It is thought that they use the pulsing ofthe artery to promote their own blood flow.
Q The int. thoracic arteries run pos to the costal cartilages, parrallel to the sternum. From what BV do these stem? A The subclavian artery.
Q What is the difference between the Hilum and Root of the lung? A The hilum is the hole through which the root passes. The two layers of pleura are continuous at the hilum. The root includes the bronchus/vessels.
Q What does "cupula" mean? A Something above or on top of.
Q The pleura of the lungs has two parts, the visceral which is integrated into the lung tissue, and the parietal which lines the pulmonary cavity. What are the parts of the parietal pleura? A 1= cervical pleura, sup to the first rib and no longer in the thorax. 2= costal pleura, 3=mediastinal pleura, 4= diaphragmatic pleura
Q What happens to the costodiaphragmatic recess during expiration? A It increases
Q Which lobes of the lungs are seen posteriorly? A only the middle and inf lobes of the R lung, and te inf lobe of the L lung.
Q This is found under the cardiac notch on the left lung. A Lingula (lingula means "tongue")
Q Oblique fissures in the L/R lungs separate the inf lobes on the bottom. What is the name of the fissure that separates the mid/sup lobes in the R lung? A The horizontal fissure
Q Is the trachea ant/pos the esophagus? A The trachea lies ant to the esophagus
Q Which lung has a groove for the subclavian artery? A L
Q Which lung has a groove for the arch of the azygos vein? A R
Q Which lung has a groove for the brachiocephalic vein? A R
Q ***On which lung can the pulmonary ligament be visualized? A ***On both, actually. I've got this one marked in red, but i don't have any explanatory notes.....
Q ***In the Root of the lungs, as they travel through the hilum, which bronchus is positioned more vertically? A The R, which makes it appear more ***SUPERIOR in the root.
Q ***Pulmonary arteries appear more superior than the pulmonary veins in the root of the lung. Sup/inf can be hard to distinguish on a specimen in lab though, so what is a better way to tell the difference? A The ateries have a thicker wall, and are more stiff (not as stiff as the bronchi's cartilage though), and the pulmonary veins are thin and flimsy.
Q Only one of the intercostal mm. is used for forced inspiriation. Which is it? A The external intercostals are used for forced inspiration, while all the others are for forced expiration.
Q Which of the intercostal mm. is found closest to the spine? A The external intercostal mm., which go from the rib tubercles to the costochondral junctions
Q These intercostal mm. extend from the angles of the ribs to the sternum? A Internal intercostal mm.
Q If the internal/external intercostal mm. do not span the ribs all the way from the spine to the sternum, is there an open hole, or what is found where the intercostal mm. aren't? A There is an internal/external intercostal membrane that is a sort of extension of those intercostal mm.
Q What mm. is found on the internal surface of the lower sternum extending to superolateral costal cartilages? A The transverse thoracic mm/transversus thoracis
Q These intercostal mm. only span the lateral 1/2 of the thoracic cage A The innermost intercostal mm.
Q Where is the neurovascular plane found in the intercostal mm.? A Between the internal and innermost intercostal mm.
Q How many pairs of intercostal arteries are there? A 11 pairs, and one subcostal pair
Q The ant intercostal a. come from the internal thoracic aa., and the pos intercostal aa. come from the thoracic aorta. What are the exceptions to this rule? A 1 and 2 come from the sup intercostal a. that branches off the costocervical trunk, and the subcostal aa. come from the aorta (interestingly enough)
Q The intercostal veins are much like the intercostal aa. Where do these drain in the ant/pos? A Ant intercost. vv. drain to the int. thoracic vv, and the pos intercost. vv. drain to the azygos system.
Q There are exceptions to the drainage of the intercost. vv., just like with the intercost. aa. What are they? A 1-3 intercost vv. unite to form the sup intercost vv., and the subcostal vv. drain into the azygos system.
Q There are 12 pairs of spinal nn. in the thoracic walll, 11 intercostal, and 1 subcostal. Are these formed from dorsal or ventral rami? A dorsal
Q What mm. does the lat. cutaneous branch of the intercostal nn. pierce? How about the ant. branch? A The lat branch pierces the ext. intercostal mm. on it's way out, and the ant. intercost. n. pierces the int. intercost mm.
Created by: GrossAnatomy1